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Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by high blood sugar (glucose) levels that result from defects in insulin secretion, or its action, or both. Diabetes mellitus commonly referred to as diabetes. Blood glucose levels are tightly controlled by insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas. Insulin lowers the blood glucose level. When the blood glucose elevates over time, diabetes can lead to blindness, kidney failure, and nerve damage. These types of damage are the result of damage to small vessels, referred to as micro vascular disease. Diabetes is also an important factor in accelerating the hardening and narrowing of the arteries (atherosclerosis), leading to strokes, coronary heart disease, and other large blood vessel diseases. This is referred to as macro vascular disease.
There are three types of diabetes:
Type 1 diabetes: Type 1 used to be known as insulin-dependent diabetes (IDDM), or juvenile-onset diabetes as it often begins in childhood. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition where the immune system wrongly identifies and subsequently attacks the pancreatic cells that produce insulin, leading to little or no insulin production.
Type 2 diabetes: Type 2 used to be known as non-insulin dependent diabetes (NIDDM) and adult onset diabetes, but it is increasingly common in children, largely due to children being more likely to be obese or overweight. In this condition, the body usually still produces some insulin, but this is not enough to meet demand and the body's cells do not properly respond to the insulin. The latter effect is called insulin resistance, where persistently elevated blood glucose has caused cells to be overexposed to insulin, making them less responsive or unresponsive to the hormonal messenger.
Gestational diabetes: Gestational diabetes occurs in pregnancy and typically resolves after childbirth. People who have experienced gestational diabetes do, however, have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes after pregnancy.
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Diabetes is truly a global epidemic. According to the most recent data from the World Health Organization (WHO), approximately 346 million people throughout the world have diabetes. WHO projects that number could double between 2005 and 2030. According to recent estimates, the prevalence of diabetes in the USA is predicted to reach 8.9% of the population by 2025. In the USA about 24 million people are estimated to be affected with diabetes. Out of this 24 million approximately 23.0 per cent (5.7 million) still remain undiagnosed. About 1.6 million new cases were diagnosed in people aged 20 and over. In the USA, diabetes is the leading cause of blindness, kidney failure and amputations. In a majority of the European countries, prevalence of obesity has increased by almost 10 to 50 per cent and as much as 60 per cent of the adult population is obese in some of the European countries. Obesity in children is estimated to be up to 30 per cent in some of the countries. Increasing obesity and aging population have increased the incidence of diabetes in Europe. People with diabetes have higher risk of death than those without diabetes. Prevention, awareness and research are three components of slowing the progress of diabetes.
The global diabetes market is expected to reach $44.70 billion in 2015 with a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 7.5 per cent. The growth in the Asian market is estimated to be high fuelling the Rest-of-World market share to 15.9 per cent in 2015. Europe and Japan are expected to have a share of 31.3 and 9.5 per cent in 2015. Around $174.00 billion is spent towards direct and indirect costs due to diabetes. The direct medical costs add up to $116.00 billion. The U.S. market is the major geographical market holding more than 50 per cent of the revenues. However, the market is maturing, thereby forcing pharmaceutical participants to look for emerging areas in diabetes. Though the market is maturing the incidence of new diabetes cases is providing revenue generation opportunities for the companies.
The European diabetes market is dominated by Germany, followed by the United Kingdom. They constitute more than half of the total market. Germany is estimated to hold 33.5 per cent, while the United Kingdom has 21.0 per cent. The other countries such as France, Italy and Spain hold 14.5, 12.2 and 8.3 per cent, respectively. Scandinavian and Benelux countries constitute 5.0 and 5.5 per cent, respectively.
In 2009, the total revenue from China, India, South Korea, and Taiwan was approximately USD 2.5 billion. 60% of the total comprised of non-insulin therapeutics, while the insulin market made up the remaining 40%. China contributed to over half of the market size, with a revenue of USD 1.57 billion and is the only country who's insulin market size is larger than that of the non-insulin market.
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This page was last updated on November 30, 2020