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Biosensor is a device that uses specific biochemical reactions mediated by isolated enzymes, immunosystems, tissues, organelles or whole cells to detect chemical compounds usually by electrical, thermal or optical signals.
A biosensor can also be defined as an analytical device, used for the detection of an analyte, that combines a biological component with a physicochemical detector.
Components of Biosensor
•Sensitive biological element (e.g. tissue, microorganisms, organelles, cell receptors, enzymes, antibodies, nucleic acids, etc.), a biologically derived material or biomimetic component that interacts (binds or recognizes) the analyte under study. The biologically sensitive elements can also be created by biological engineering.
•Transducer or the detector element (works in a physicochemical way; optical, piezoelectric, electrochemical, etc.) that transforms the signal resulting from the interaction of the analyte with the biological element into another signal (i.e., transduces) that can be more easily measured and quantified.
•Biosensor reader device with the associated electronics or signal processors that are primarily responsible for the display of the results in a user-friendly way. This sometimes accounts for the most expensive part of the sensor device, however it is possible to generate a user friendly display that includes transducer and sensitive element(see Holographic Sensor). The readers are usually custom-designed and manufactured to suit the different working principles of biosensors. Known manufacturers of biosensor electronic readers include PalmSens, Gwent Biotechnology Systems and Rapid Labs.
e.g. of Biosensor
Blood glucose biosensor, which uses the enzyme glucose oxidase to break blood glucose down. It first oxidizes glucose and uses two electrons to reduce the FAD (a component of the enzyme) to FADH2. This in turn is oxidized by the electrode in a number of steps. The resulting current is a measure of the concentration of glucose. In this case, the electrode is the transducer and the enzyme is the biologically active component.
Applications of Biosensor:
• Glucose monitoring in diabetes patients
• Other medical health related targets
• Environmental applications e.g. the detection of pesticides and river water contaminants such as heavy metal ions
• Remote sensing of airborne bacteria e.g. in counter-bioterrorist activities
• Detection of pathogens
• Determining levels of toxic substances before and after bioremediation
• Detection and determining of organophosphate
• Routine analytical measurement of folic acid, biotin, vitamin B12 and pantothenic acid as an alternative to microbiological assay
• Determination of drug residues in food, such as antibiotics and growth promoters, particularly meat and honey.
• Drug discovery and evaluation of biological activity of new compounds.
• Protein engineering in biosensors
• Detection of toxic metabolites such as mycotoxins
A biosensor typically consists of a bio-recognition component, biotransducer component, and electronic system which include a signal amplifier, processor, and display. Transducers and electronics can be combined, e.g., in CMOS-based microsensor systems. The recognition component, often called a bioreceptor, uses biomolecules from organisms or receptors modeled after biological systems to interact with the analyte of interest. This interaction is measured by the biotransducer which outputs a measurable signal proportional to the presence of the target analyte in the sample. The general aim of the design of a biosensor is to enable quick, convenient testing at the point of concern or care where the sample was procured.
There are many potential applications of biosensors of various types. The main requirements for a biosensor approach to be valuable in terms of research and commercial applications are the identification of a target molecule, availability of a suitable biological recognition element, and the potential for disposable portable detection systems to be preferred to sensitive laboratory-based techniques in some situations.
So many symposiums have been conducted and are to be organized all across the globe focusing on the functioning and applications of of Biosensors. Some of them are 2014 Nanosafe Bioelectronics and Biosensing International Symposium and National BioSensor Symposium.
OMICS International Organizes 300+ conferences, 500+workshops and 200+symposiums on Clinical, Medicine, Pharma and Science & Technology every year across USA, Europe, Asia, Middle East, Australia and UK with support from 1000 more Scientific Societies and Publishes 500 open access journals which contains over 30000 eminent personalities, reputed scientists as editorial board members. The OMICS International Conferences are instrumental in giving a serious stage to the incredibly famous scientists, understudies, researchers, academicians, organizations, business visionaries and businesses through its 300+ International Conferences and occasions yearly all through the globe to raise and examine the advancements in the field of OMICS Study. OMICS International Conferences are completely pressed with intriguing occasions, exercises and learning going with the quick entrepreneurial enthusiasm to make them genuine. They are multidimensional with synchronous movement situated symposia, International workshops and presentations where the identities from Sciences (Both unadulterated & connected), Pharmaceutical, Medical, Clinical, Engineering & Technology and Life Sciences accumulate with their procedures in discovering genuine answers for different basic issues around the globe.
• Biosensor Society (India)
• The Optical Society(OSA), US
• IEEE Engineering in Medicine & Biology Society (EMB)
• Royal Society of Chemistry, UK
• Imperial College London, UK
• Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC), UK
• International Scientific Academy of Engineering & Technology
• Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Japan
• Biosensors International Group
• Nihon Dempa Kyogo Co. Ltd. Japan
• Biosensors 2014
• 3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Biosensors and Bioelectronics
• 36th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC)
• IEEE Biomedical Circuits and Systems Conference (BioCAS)
• 2014 IEEE International Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference (I2MTC)
• IEEE International Solid- State Circuits Conference - (ISSCC)
• IEEE Sensors Applications Symposium (SAS)
• IEEE Sensors
• IEEE Symposium on VLSI Circuits
• IEEE Topical Conference on Biomedical Wireless Technologies, Networks, and Sensing Systems (BioWireless)
Name of Companies:
• Biosensors International Ltd.
• Innovative Biosensors, Inc.
• Universal Biosensors
• Shandong Weigao Group Medical Polymer Co. Ltd.
• SAW Instruments GmbH
• Universal Biosensors
• Axela Biosensors
• Biophan Technologies
• Atonomics A/S
• Digital Angel
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This page was last updated on 17th Apr, 2015
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