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As per available reports about 5 relevant Journals and 3 Conferences are presently dedicated exclusively to Solar System and about 30 open-access articles and 114 conference proceedings are being published on Solar System.
Solar System comprises the Sun and the objects that orbit it, whether they orbit it directly or by orbiting other objects that orbit it directly. Of those objects that orbit the Sun directly, the largest eight are the planets that form the planetary system around it, while the remainder are significantly smaller objects, such as dwarf planets and small Solar System bodies (SSSBs) such as comets and asteroids. Study of solar system involves fields like Space exploration, Solar physics, Space and Planetary Sciences etc.
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Scope and Importance:
The existence of the Earth's galaxy, the Milky Way, as a separate group of stars, was only proved in the 20th century, along with the existence of "external" galaxies, and soon after, the expansion of the Universe, seen in the recession of most galaxies from us. Modern astronomy has also discovered many exotic objects such as quasars, pulsars, blazars, and radio galaxies, and has used these observations to develop physical theories which describe some of these objects in terms of equally exotic objects such as black holes and neutron stars. Physical cosmology made huge advances during the 20th century, with the model of the Big Bang heavily supported by the evidence provided by astronomy and physics, such as the cosmic microwave background radiation, Hubble's law, and cosmological abundances of elements. Space telescopes have enabled measurements in parts of the electromagnetic spectrum normally blocked or blurred by the atmosphere. The solar system conferences provide an opportunity for the delegates to meet, interact and exchange new ideas in the various areas of Astrophysics, space exploration, planetary sciences etc.
The Solar System comprises the Sun and the objects that orbit it, whether they orbit it directly or by orbiting other objects that orbit it directly. Of those objects that orbit the Sun directly, the largest eight are the planets that form the planetary system around it, while the remainder are significantly smaller objects, such as dwarf planets and small Solar System bodies (SSSBs) such as comets and asteroids. The Solar System formed 4.6 billion years ago from the gravitational collapse of a giant molecular cloud. The vast majority of the system's mass is in the Sun, with most of the remaining mass contained in Jupiter. The four smaller inner planets, Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars, also called the terrestrial planets, are primarily composed of rock and metal. The four outer planets, called the gas giants, are substantially more massive than the terrestrials. The two largest, Jupiter and Saturn, are composed mainly of hydrogen and helium; the two outermost planets, Uranus and Neptune, are composed largely of substances with relatively high melting points (compared with hydrogen and helium), called ices, such as water, ammonia and methane, and are often referred to separately as "ice giants". All planets have almost circular orbits that lie within a nearly flat disc called the ecliptic plane.
The Solar System also contains regions populated by smaller objects. The asteroid belt, which lies between Mars and Jupiter, mostly contains objects composed, like the terrestrial planets, of rock and metal. Beyond Neptune's orbit lie the Kuiper belt and scattered disc, linked populations of trans-Neptunian objects composed mostly of ices. Within these populations are several dozen to more than ten thousand objects that may be large enough to have been rounded by their own gravity. Such objects are referred to as dwarf planets. Identified dwarf planets include the asteroid Ceres and the trans-Neptunian objects Pluto and Eris. In addition to these two regions, various other small-body populations, including comets, centaurs and interplanetary dust, freely travel between regions. Six of the planets, at least three of the dwarf planets, and many of the smaller bodies are orbited by natural satellites, usually termed "moons" after Earth's Moon. Each of the outer planets is encircled by planetary rings of dust and other small objects.
Institutional budgets are critical in starting-up and devel- oping capital-intensive and high technology sectors such as space. Government Budget Appropriations or Outlays for R&D (GBAORD) data are assembled by national authorities analysing their budget for R&D content and classifying them by “socio-economic objective”. These diverse objec- tives represent the intention of the government at the time of funding commitment, and a special category “explora- tion and exploitation of space” exists. Although the data provide only a partial picture of space investments (see note below), the long-term time-series provide useful trends on policy orientations.
In 2013, total civil GBAORD for space programmes for all OECD countries amounted to USD 19.2 billion PPP. The United States had the highest GBAORD for space pro- grammes at USD 10.6 billion PPP, followed by the Russian Federation (USD 3.3 billion PPP), Japan (USD 2.2 billion PPP) and France (USD 1.7 billion PPP). The United States was also the country in which space programmes took the high- est percentage of total civil GBAORD, at 16.9%, followed by France (10.4%) and Belgium (8.7%). The OECD-wide mean average represented 7.7% in 2013.
Compared to trends seen in previous editions of The Space Economy at a Glance, there is a global 2% decrease in GBAORD for space programmes for the OECD area in 2013. The share of space programmes in total civil GBAORD also decreased from 9.1% to 7.5%, mostly due to a decrease in the United States. However, there are no strong negative trends for a majority of countries, with a number of econo- mies (France, Germany, Japan) having actually increased their outlays for space R&D in the last couple of years.
Relevant Society and Associations
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This page was last updated on 11th Sep, 2015
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