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Cosmic rays are immensely high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System. They may produce showers of secondary particles that penetrate and impact the Earth's atmosphere and sometimes even reach the surface. Topics like Fermi space telescope, galactic nuclei, X-rays are of interest.
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Composed mainly of high-energy protons and atomic nuclei, they are of mysterious origin. Data from the Fermi space telescope have been deduced as evidence that a important fraction of primary cosmic rays originate from the supernovae of massive stars. However, this is not thought to be their only source. Active galactic nuclei possibly also produce cosmic rays. The term ray is a historical accident, as cosmic rays were at first, and wrongly, thought to be mostly electromagnetic radiation. In common scientific usage high-energy particles with intrinsic mass are known as "cosmic" rays, and photons, which are quanta of electromagnetic radiation, are known by their common names, such as "gamma rays" or "X-rays", depending on their frequencies. Cosmic rays attract great attention practically due to the damage they exact on microelectronics and life outside the protection of an atmosphere and magnetic field, and scientifically, because the energies of the most energetic ultra-high-energy cosmic rays have been observed to approach 3 × 1020ev, about 40 million times the energy of particles accelerated by the Large Hadron Collider. At 50 J, the highest-energy ultra-high-energy cosmic rays have energies similar to the kinetic energy of a 90-kilometre-per-hour (56 mph) baseball. As a result of these discoveries, there has been interest in investigating cosmic rays of even greater energies.
THE Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is far and away the most powerful particle accelerator built by the hand of man. Yet it is puny compared to the most powerful particle accelerator of them all: the universe itself. Earth is under constant bombardment from cosmic rays (mostly atomic nuclei travelling at high velocity) that streak in from deep space, smash into the atmosphere and disintegrate in a puff of radiation and subatomic debris. Though the vast majority of cosmic rays are pale shadows of the things physicists cook up in atom-smashers, a real whopper arrives occasionally. The most energetic of all are millions of times more potent than anything the LHC can generate, packing the energy of a rapidly delivered cricket ball into a single, blisteringly fast atomic nucleus. Studying such ultra-high-energy rays is difficult, though, because they are so rare. Each square kilometre of Earth is hit, on average, by about one a century. The Pierre Auger Observatory, a facility in Argentina which surveys 3,000 square kilometres of Earth’s atmosphere, picked up around 15 a year between 2005 and 2008. But Justin Bray, an astrophysicist at Southampton University, in Britain, has plans to do much better. With the help of the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), a continent-spanning radio telescope being built in southern Africa and Australia, he proposes to use the Moon as a colossal cosmic-ray detector.
1. Exhibition on Satellite & Space Missions Conference
July 21-23, 2016 Berlin, Germany
2. Automation and Robotics Congress,
June 16-18, 2016 Philadelphia, USA
3. Exhibition on Wind Energy Congress
July 28-30, 2016 Berlin, Germany
4. European Radio Interferometry School (ERIS) 2015
5. CRIS2016 — Cosmic Ray International Seminar
6. Statistical Challenges in 21st Century Cosmology (COSMO21)
List of related Societies and Associations:
1. The OB association origin of galactic cosmic rays
2. European physics association
3. British Sundial Society European Astronomical Society
4. International Union of Radio Science
5. Canadian Journal of Physics
6. Astrobiology Society of Britain
7. UK Solar Physics Group
8. Magnetosphere Ionosphere and Solar-Terrestrial (MIST) Group
9. Society for the History of Astronomy
10. International Union of Radio Science
List of major Cosmic Ray and related Research Centers:
1. Institute for Cosmic Ray Research
2. Institute for Cosmic Ray Research of University of Tokyo
3. Bartol Research Institute - University of Delaware
4. Indian Institute of Astrophysics
5. Raman Research Institute
6. Institute for Computational Cosmology
7. Kavli Institute for Cosmology
8. Beecroft Institute of Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology
9. Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics
This page will be updated regularly.
This page was last updated on March 4, 2021