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A cell line is a permanently established cell culture that will proliferate indefinitely given appropriate fresh medium and space.Cell lines differ from cell strains in that they have escaped the Hayflick limit and become immortalised. Some species, particularly rodents, give rise to lines relatively easily, whereas other species do not. No cell lines have been produced from avian tissues and the establishment of cell lines from human tissue is difficult. Primary cell cultures come from the outgrowth of migrating cells from a piece of tissue or from tissue that is disaggregated by enzymatic, chemical, or mechanical methods. Primary cultures are formed from cells that survive the disaggregation process, attach to the cell culture vessel (or survive in suspension), and proliferate. These cultures are capable of only a limited number of cell divisions, after which they enter a non-proliferative state called senescence and eventually die out. Adherent primary cells are particularly susceptible to contact inhibition,they will stop growing when they have reached confluency. At lower cell densities, the normal phenotype can be maintained. Primary cell culture is generally more difficult than culture of continuous cell lines. Primary cell cultures are sometimes preferred over continuous cell lines in experimental systems.Cell lines cultured for extended periods of time can undergo phenotypic and genotypic changes that can lead to discrepancies when comparing results from different laboratories using the same cell line. Furthermore, many cell types are not available as continuous cell lines.OMICS Group through its Open Access Initiative is committed to make genuine and reliable contributions to the scientific community. OMICS Group hosts over 400 leading-edge peer reviewed Open Access journals and has organized over 300 scientific conferences all over the world. OMICS Publishing Group journals have over 3 million readers and the fame and success of the same can be attributed to the strong editorial board which contains over 30000 eminent personalities and the rapid, quality and quick review processing. OMICS Group Conferences make the perfect platform for global networking as it brings together renowned speakers and scientists across the globe to a most exciting and memorable scientific event filled with much enlightening interactive sessions, world class exhibitions and poster presentations.
Finite cell cultures are formed after the first subculturing (passaging) of a primary cell culture. These cultures will proliferate for a limited number of cell divisions, after which they will senesce. The proliferative potential of some human finite cell cultures can be extended by introduction of viral transforming genes (e.g., the SV40 transforming-antigen genes). The phenotype of these cultures is intermediate between finite cultures and continuous cultures. The cells will proliferate for an extended time, but usually the culture will eventually cease dividing, similar to senescent primary cells. Use of such cells is sometimes easier than use of primary cell cultures, especially for generation of stably transfected clones.Continuous cell lines: Finite cell cultures will eventually either die out or acquire a stable, heritable mutation that gives rise to a continuous cell line that is capable of unlimited proliferative potential. This alteration is commonly known as in vitro transformation or immortalization and frequently correlates with tumorigenicity. Rodent primary cell cultures form continuous cell lines relatively easily, either spontaneously or following exposure to a mutagenic agent. In contrast, human primary cell cultures rarely, if ever, become immortal in this way and require additional genetic manipulation to form a continuous cell line. However, cell cultures derived from human tumors are often immortal. Continuous cell lines are generally easier to work with than primary or finite cell cultures. However, it should be remembered that these cells have undergone genetic alterations and their behavior in vitro may not represent the in vivo situation.
Maintaining cell cultures
Establishment and maintenance of animal cell cultures require standardized approaches for media preparation, feeding, and passaging (or subculturing) of the cells. Cultures should be examined regularly to check for signs of contamination and to determine if the culture needs feeding or passaging.Upcoming Conferences/Symposiums/Workshops are six in number and companies which are involved in cell line research are twelve in number.
•“World Stem Cell Summit”, 3rd-5th December 2014, Marriot Rivercenter,San Antonio,USA
•“Stem Cells & Regenerative Medicine Congress Asia 2014”,21st-23rd October 2014,Renaissance Seoul Hotel,Seoul,South Korea
•“Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine Congress 2014”, 15th-16th September, Boston,USA
•“Global Controls in Stem Cells”,5th-7th November 2014,Singapore
•“3rd Annual Cell Culture & Bioprocessing Congress 2014”,17th -18th November 2014,London
•“Optimizing Cell Line Development”, 21st -22nd August 2014 ,Renaissance Waterfront Hotel,Boston,USA
American Society for Histocompatibility& Immunogenetics
American Physiological Society
American Cancer Society
International Society of Stem Cell Research
American Society of Gene & Cell Therapy
International Stem Cell Society
Major Companies like Cell Biolabs, Clontech, Life Technologies Corporation, Lonza, Microbix, Miltenyi Biotec, Promocell, Sigma-Aldrich, Thermo Scientific, Stemcell Technologies, Qiagen, Promega are involved in cell line research.
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This page was last updated on 11th Oct, 2014
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