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Retina is a layer at the back of the eyeball that contains cells sensitive to light, which trigger nerve impulses that pass via the optic nerve to the brain, where a visual image is formed. Retina is interconnected by synapses with layers of neurons. Light sensitive neurons are known as Photo receptor neurons which are of two types, Rods and Cones. Rods functions in dim light and provides black and white vision and cones are used for color perception. Retina is composed of 10 distinct layers. Mainly the vision passes through these 10 layers and this can be simplified in to 4 stages transmission to bipolar cells, transmission to ganglion cells, photosensitive ganglion cells and transmission along Optic nerve.
Electroretinogram is used to measure non-invasively the retinal electrical activity. Treatment for retianal disorders includes transplantation of retina which is not much success and other treatments depend on the type of diseases and disorders. Recently Retinal Gene therapy is of great success in treatment of retinal diseases. This treatment involves insertion of gene in to retina by a non-infectious virus (recombinant adeno associated virus) having features that ideally suitable for Gene therapy. Now a days retina scan is used for biometric identification.
In normal adults the retina sizes about 22cm in diameter and it is comprises of 7 million cones and 15-15m million rods. Blood is supplied from ophthalmic artery in two directions. Retinitis Pigmentosa and macular degeneration are diseases commonly found which causes night blindness and loss of central vision respectively. Retinal separation in which retina detaches from the eye ball and Retinoblastoma (retina cancer) are some other diseases occur in retina. There are number of instruments for diagnosis of retinal diseases and disorders like Ophthalmoscopy and fundus photography.
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Importance and Scope:
A conference is a meeting of people who “confer” about a topic. The topic may be of different areas. Globally about 50 Retinal conferences are held. The motto of all these Retinal conferences is to fight against blindness and bringing all the top international figures together and to find treatment and cures for conditions causing sight loss. These conferences topics regarding diseases in retina, diagnosis and their cure, use of advanced science and technology laser systems, types of laser systems and their impact. Retinal conferences also cover drug therapies and different gene therapies for retinal disorders and uses of lasers in surgeries and in retinal cancer treatment and prevention of retinal diseases and disorders and care to prevent them. They also provide scope for discussing about the pigmentary retinopathesis and its clinical aspects and features of Ushers syndrome and its diagnosis, current research on retinal disorders involving Novel animal models for studying retinal function and degeneration treatment of retinal disorders in young generations. Retinal conferences provide discussions and presentations on clinical trials and commercialization of ocular gene therapy.
The field of ocular treatment & care is growing rapidly and its development is making tremendous impacts in medical sciences and pharmaceuticals. The importance and significance can be gauged by the fact that it has made huge advancements over the course of time and is continuing to influence various sectors.
The United States eye equipment market, currently valued at $15 billion, is expected to reach a value of $19 billion by 2014. The largest segment of the market, contact lenses, is projected to increase at a CAGR of 3.3%, rising to more than $7.7 billion in 2014, after being valued at nearly $6.6 billion in 2009. The second-largest segment, the ophthalmic surgical market, is estimated at $5.5 billion in 2009, and is expected to increase at a five-year CAGR of 5.9% to reach more than $7.3 billion in 2014. The ophthalmic diagnostics segment is expected to reach $4 billion in 2014, after rising at a CAGR of 5.2% from its 2009 value of nearly $3.1 billion. The aging of the population worldwide will result in a rapid increase in the 65-and-over population by 2030, a population that accounts for the highest incidence and prevalence of eye conditions and diseases.
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This page was last updated on June 24, 2021