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As per available reports on Polymers 7 Relevant journals, 607 Conference proceedings (i.e. Smart Materials, Wireless Communication, Industrial Engineering, Condensed Matter Physics, Electronics) are presently dedicated to Polymers and about 77 Open access articles are being published and 78 National Symposiums.
Biopolymers are polymers produced by living organisms. in other words, they are polymeric biomolecules. Since they are polymers, biopolymers contain monomer units that are covalently bonded to form larger structures. There are three main classes of biopolymers, classified according to the monomer units used and the structure of the biopolymer formed: polynucleotide’s (RNA and DNA), which are long polymers composed of 13 or more nucleotide monomers; polypeptides, which are short polymers of amino acids; and polysaccharides, which are often linear bonded polymeric carbohydrate structures. Cellulose, starch and chitin, proteins and peptides, and DNA and RNA are all examples of biopolymers, in which the monomeric units, respectively, are sugars, amino acids, and nucleotides. Some biopolymers are biodegradable. That is, they are broken down into CO2 and water by microorganisms. The present world is now concerned about the use of biopolymer to control and prevent soil pollution and to protect the environment.
The use of biopolymers has now spread worldwide in different sectors starting from medicine to food industry. Even in the petroleum industry, biopolymer has proved to be the efficient alternative and causes less harm to the environment as well. Corporate sectors are investing a huge finance for developing and supporting this new era of biopolymers and this development in the market also inspiring the young entrepreneur to put forward their step in this sector of biopolymer. Some of the leading corporate sectors in this field are Metabolix, FMC Biopolymer and Biopolymer product. A major defining difference between biopolymers and other polymers can be found in their structures.
All polymers are made of repetitive units called monomers. Biopolymers often have a well-defined structure, though this is not a defining characteristic .The exact chemical composition and the sequence in which these units are arranged is called the primary structure, in the case of proteins. Many biopolymers spontaneously fold into characteristic compact shapes (see also "protein folding" as well as secondary structure and tertiary structure), which determine their biological functions and depend in a complicated way on their primary structures. Structural biology is the study of the structural properties of the biopolymers. In contrast most synthetic polymers have much simpler and more random (or stochastic) structures. This fact leads to a molecular mass distribution that is missing in biopolymers. In fact, as their synthesis is controlled by a template directed process in most in vivo systems all biopolymers of a type (say one specific protein) are all alike: they all contain the similar sequences and numbers of monomers and thus all have the same mass. This phenomenon is called monodispersity in contrast to the polydispersity encountered in synthetic polymers. As a result biopolymers have a polydispersity index.
In Worldwide a number of genuine conferences have been scheduled and also being commenced at times related to biopolymer and its use in different sectors. These international conferences inviting medical practitioner, researchers, pharmaceutical and allied corporate sectors, public as well as govt. societies to take part for creating awareness about the contemporary development in avoiding chemical polymers and replacing it by the use of Biopolymers. 2014 Biopolymers. Mechanisms of Bimolecular Interactions: From Physical Principles to Biological Insights is in June 1-6, 2014Salve Regina University Newport, RI ;Biopolymers - In Vitro, In Silico, and in the Cell is in June 3-8, 2012 Salve Regina University Newport, RI; Biopolymers -From Folding and Function to Engineering and Design is in June 6-11, 2010 Salve Regina University Newport, RI; 23-24 April 2012 NH Laguna Palace Hotel, Mester-Venice, Italy; , Organized by Gordon Research Group, USA and 2nd International conference on Bio-based polymers and composites; The public and government sectors are creating the awareness by organizing worldwide conference and events One such conferences, Biopolymers Conference 2014 was being conducted by SMITHERS RAPRA in USA.
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Scope and Importance:
Polymerization is the process of combining many small molecules known as monomers into a covalently bonded chain or network. During the polymerization process, some chemical groups may be lost from each monomer. This is the case, for example, in the polymerization of PET polyester. The monomers are terephthalic acid (HOOC-C6H4-COOH) and ethylene glycol (HO-CH2-CH2-OH) but the repeating unit is -OC-C6H4-COO-CH2-CH2-O-, which corresponds to the combination of the two monomers with the loss of two water molecules. The distinct piece of each monomer that is incorporated into the polymer is known as a repeat unit or monomer residue.
Laboratory synthetic methods are generally divided into two categories, step-growth polymerization and chain-growth polymerization.The essential difference between the two is that in chain growth polymerization, monomers are added to the chain one at a time only,such as in polyethylene, whereas in step-growth polymerization chains of monomers may combine with one another directly,such as in polyester. However, some newer methods such as plasma polymerization do not fit neatly into either category. Synthetic polymerization reactions may be carried out with or without a catalyst. Laboratory synthesis of biopolymers, especially of proteins, is an area of intensive research
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