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Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including works like roads, bridges, canals, dams, and buildings. Engineering has been an aspect of life since the beginnings of human existence.
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Scope and Importance:
Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including works like roads, bridges, canals, dams, and buildings. Engineering has been an aspect of life since the beginnings of human existence. The earliest practice of civil engineering may have commenced between 4000 and 2000 BC in Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia when humans started to abandon a nomadic existence, creating a need for the construction of shelter. Civil engineers typically possess an academic degree in civil engineering. The length of study is three to five years, and the completed degree is designated as a bachelor of engineering, or a bachelor of science. The curriculum generally includes classes in physics, mathematics, project management, design and specific topics in civil engineering. Sub-disciplines of Civil Engineering
In general, civil engineering is concerned with the overall interface of human created fixed projects with the greater world. General civil engineers work closely with surveyors and specialized civil engineers to design grading, drainage, pavement, water supply, sewer service, electric and communications supply, and land divisions.
Materials science and engineering
Materials science is closely related to civil engineering. Material engineering studies fundamental characteristics of materials, and deals with ceramics such as concrete and mix asphalt concrete, strong metals such as aluminum and steel, and polymers including carbon fibers.
Materials engineering also involves protection and prevention (paints and finishes). Alloying combines two types of metals to produce another metal with desired properties. It incorporates elements of applied physics and chemistry.
Construction engineering involves planning and execution, transportation of materials, site development based on hydraulic, environmental, structural and geotechnical engineering.
Geotechnical engineering studies rock and soil supporting civil engineering systems. Knowledge from the field of geology, materials science, mechanics, and hydraulics is applied to safely and economically design foundations, retaining walls, and other structures.
Structural engineering is concerned with the structural design and structural analysis of buildings, bridges, towers, flyovers (overpasses), tunnels, off shore structures like oil and gas fields in the sea, aero structure and other structures. This involves identifying the loads which act upon a structure and the forces and stresses which arise within that structure due to those loads, and then designing the structure to successfully support and resist those loads. The loads can be self weight of the structures, other dead load, live loads, wind load, earthquake load, load from temperature change etc.
Civil engineers who specialize in tunnel engineering are responsible for the planning, designing, construction, safety and maintenance of tunnels. There are specifications that must be adhered to when working with tunnels for roadways, waterways or trains.
Earthquake engineers study the seismic forces and earthquake resistant structures. In regions that are known for seismic activities, engineers must design and construct structures based on how well they will react within an earthquake situation.
These are some of the branches and the others are Coastal Engineering, Municipal Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Water Resource Engineering etc.
OMICS Group established in the year 2007 with the main true point of building the information on sciences and technology. OMICS Group organizes 300 International meetings yearly over the world, where it serves to exchange the data through international symposia, B2B meetings, round table exchanges, exhibitions, poster competitions and international workshops.
Market analysis :
BCC (www.bccresearch.com) reveals in its new report on smart materials, the global market was valued at $23.6 billion in 2013 and almost $26 billion in 2014. This is anticipated to reach over $42.2 billion in 2019 at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 10.2% between 2014 and 2019. Motors and actuators make up the largest application segment of the market, with sales of nearly $16.8 billion (70.8% of the market) in 2013, increasing to $30.2 billion (nearly 71.6% of the market) by 2019.
Civil engineering associations
List of Civil Engineering Companies
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This page was last updated on 12th Sep, 2015
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