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Electrophysiology is the study of the electrical properties of biological cells and tissues. It involves measurements of voltage change or electric current on variety of style of scales from single ion channel proteins to whole organs just like the heart. In neurobiology, it includes measurements of the electrical activity of neurons, and notably nerve impulse activity. Recordings of large-scale electrical signals from the nervous system like electroencephalography may also be cited as electrophysiological recordings.
Electrophysiology is the science and branch of physiology that pertains to the flow of ions in biological tissues and, specifically, to the electrical recording techniques that change the activity of this flow. Classical electrophysiology techniques involve placing electrodes into numerous preparations of biological tissue. The principal varieties of electrodes are:
1. Simple solid conductors, such as discs and needles (singles or arrays, often insulated except for the tip)
2. Tracings on printed circuit boards, also insulated except for the tip, and
3. Hollow tubes filled with an electrolyte, such as glass pipettes filled with potassium chloride solution or another electrolyte solution.
Intracellular recording involves measuring voltage and/or current across the membrane of a cell. To make an intracellular recording, the tip of a fine (sharp) microelectrode should be inserted within the cell, so the membrane potential will be measured. Typically, the resting membrane potential of a healthy cell are going to be-60 to -80 mV, and through an action potential the membrane potential might reach +40 mV. In 1963, Alan Lloyd Hodgkin and Andrew Fielding Huxley won the laurels in Physiology or medicine for their contribution to understanding the mechanisms underlying the generation of action potentials in neurons.
Their experiments involved intracellular recordings from the giant axon of Atlantic squid (Loligo pealei), and were among the primary applications of the "voltage clamp" technique. Today, most microelectrodes used for living thing recording are glass micropipettes, with a tip diameter of < 1 micrometer, and a resistance of many mega ohms. The micropipettes are full of a solution that incorporates a similar ionic composition to the intracellular fluid of the cell. A chlorided silver wire inserted in to the pipet connects the electrolyte electrically to the amplifier and signal process circuit.
The voltage measured by the conductor is compared to the voltage of a reference conductor, typically a silver chloride-coated silver wire in contact with the extracellular fluid round the cell. In general, the smaller the conductor tip, the higher its resistance, thus an electrode is a compromise between size (small enough to penetrate one cell with minimum damage to the cell) and resistance (low enough so that small neural signals can be discerned from thermal noise within the electrode tip).
Scope and Importance:
Electrophysiology Conferences discuss a wide range of latest technologies with the Scientists, researches, etc., all over the world to promote the latest advancements and technology for better world.
Electrophysiology studies (EPS) are tests that help doctors understand the nature of abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias). Electrical signals usually travel through the heart in a regular pattern. Heart attacks, aging and high blood pressure may cause scarring of the heart. This may cause the heart to beat in an irregular (uneven) pattern. Extra abnormal electrical pathways found in certain congenital heart defects can also cause arrhythmias.
During EPS, doctors insert a thin tube called a catheter into a blood vessel that leads to your heart. A specialized electrode catheter designed for EP studies lets them send electrical signals to your heart and record its electrical activity.
The global electrophysiology market over the forecast period of 2014 to 2019 is expected to reach $4.73 billion by 2019 at CAGR of 10.3% from 2014 to 2019. Factors such as development of technologically advanced EP devices, rapid growth in aging population with high risk of target diseases, increasing incidence of arrhythmia cases across the globe, and growing focus of key market players to expand their geographic presence are fuelling the growth of the global electrophysiology market.
Emerging markets such as China, India, Brazil, and Mexico offer numerous growth opportunities for the companies engaged in the development and marketing of EP devices. Rapid growth in population aging, improving and modernizing healthcare infrastructure, huge burden of target diseases in developing nations, and development of affordable electrophysiology devices are the key factors propelling the demand for EP devices in these emerging markets.
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Electrophysiology Conferences discuss a wide range of latest technologies with the Scientists, researches, etc., all over the world to promote the latest advancements and technology for better world. A conductor introduced into the brain of a living animal can sight electrical activity that is generated by the neurons adjacent to the conductor tip. If the conductor is a microelectrode, with a tip size of concerning 1micrometre, the electrode will usually detect the activity of at the most one neuron. Recording during this manner is normally referred to as "single-unit" recording. The action potentials recorded are noticeably like the action potentials that are recorded intracellularly, but the signals are noticeably smaller (typically about 1mV). Most recordings of the activity of single neurons in anaesthetised and conscious animals are made in this manner. Recordings of single neurons in living animals have provided important insights into how the brain processes info. As an example, Hubel and Torsten wiesel recorded the activity of single neurons within the primary visual area of the anaesthetised cat, and showed however single neurons during this area answer terribly specific options of a visible stimulation. Hubel and Wiesel were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or medicine in 1981.
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Upcoming international conferences on Electrophysiology are:
Societies Supporting Electrophysiology are:
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This page was last updated on 11th Sep, 2015
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