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B cells or B lymphocytes content here are a type of lymphocyte in the humoral immunity of the adaptive immune system. B cells can be distinguished from other lymphocytes, such as T cells and natural killer cells (NK cells), by the presence of a protein on the B cell's outer surface known as a B cell receptor (BCR). This specialized receptor protein allows a B cell to bind to a specific antigen. In birds, B cells mature in the bursa of Fabricius. In mammals, immature B cells are formed in the bone marrow. The principal functions of B cells are to make antibodies against antigens, to perform the role of antigen-presenting cells (APCs), and to develop into memory B cells after activation by antigen interaction. B cells also release cytokines (proteins), which are used for signaling immune regulatory functions. B cell development occurs through several stages, each stage representing a change in the genome content at the antibody loci. An antibody is composed of two identical light (L) and two identical heavy (H) chains, and the genes specifying them are found in the 'V' (Variable) region and the 'C' (Constant) region. In the heavy-chain 'V' region there are three segments; V, D, and J, which recombine randomly, in a process called VDJ recombination, to produce a unique variable domain in the immunoglobulin of each individual B cell. Similar rearrangements occur for light-chain 'V' region except there are only two segments involved: V and J.
The list below describes the process of immunoglobulin formation at the different stages of B cell development. When the B cell fails in any step of the maturation process, it will die by a mechanism called apoptosis, here called clonal deletion. B cells are continuously produced in the bone marrow. When the B cell receptor, on the surface of the cell, matches the detected antigens present in the body, the B cell proliferates and secretes a free form of those receptors (antibodies) with identical binding sites as the ones on the original cell surface. After activation, the cell proliferates and B memory cells would form to recognize the same antigen. This information would then be used as a part of the adaptive immune system for a more efficient and more powerful immune response for future encounters with that antigen. B cell membrane receptors evolve and change throughout the B cell lifespan. The proteins TACI, BCMA, and BAFF-R (B cell-activating factor receptor) are present on both immature B cells and mature B cells. Belimumab is a monoclonal inhibitor of the soluble form of B cell-activating factor (BAFF), whereas blisibimod is an inhibitor of both membrane and soluble forms of BAFF. CD20 is expressed on all stages of B cell development except the first and last; it is present from pre-B cells through memory cells, but not on either pre-pro-B cells or plasma cells. Like their fellow lymphocytes the T cells, immature B cells are tested for auto-reactivity by the immune system before leaving the bone marrow. In the bone marrow (the central lymphoid organ), central tolerance is produced. The immature B cells whose B cell receptors (BCRs) bind too strongly to self-antigens will not be allowed to mature. The human body makes millions of different types of B cells each day that circulate in the blood and lymphatic system performing the role of immune surveillance. They do not produce antibodies until they become fully activated. Each B cell has a unique receptor protein (referred to as the B cell receptor (BCR)) on its surface that will bind to one particular antigen. The BCR is a membrane-bound immunoglobulin, and it is this molecule that allows the distinction of B cells from other types of lymphocyte, as well as being the main protein involved in B cell activation. Once a B cell encounters its cognate antigen and receives an additional signal from a T helper cell, it can further differentiate into one of the two types of B cells: plasma B cells and memory B cells. The B cell may either become one of these cell types directly or undergo an intermediate differentiation step, the germinal center reaction, where the B cell will hyper-mutate the variable region of its immunoglobulin gene ("somatic hyper-mutation") and possibly undergo class switching. Other functions for B cells include antigen presentation, cytokine production, and lymphoid tissue organization.
OMICS GROUP INTERNATIONAL is an amalgamation of Open Access publications and worldwide international science conferences and events. Established in the year 2007 with the sole aim of making the information on Sciences and technology ‘Open Access’, OMICS Publishing Group publishes 400 online open access scholarly journals in all aspects of Science, Engineering, Management and Technology journals. Research Scholars, Students, Libraries, Educational Institutions, Research centers and the industry are main stakeholders that benefitted greatly from this knowledge dissemination. OMICS Group also organizes 300 International conferences annually across the globe, where knowledge transfer takes place through debates, round table discussions, poster presentations, workshops, symposia and exhibitions.
B-Cell Related Associations and Societies :
Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB)
Society for Hematopathology
American Association of Immunologists
British Society for Immunology
European Federation of Immunological Societies: EFIS
British Association for Paediatric Nephrology
Turkish Society for Immuno-Oncology
American Board of Medical Laboratory Immunology
Asia-Pacific Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics Association
Clinical Cytometry Society
B-Cell Related Companies :
Axol Bioscience Limited
Bicycle Therapeutics Limited
B-Cell Related Conferences :
Biology of B Cell Responses
The Golden Anniversary of B Cell Discovery
The Modes of Action of Vaccine Adjuvants
Cell Death Signaling in Cancer and the Immune System
Precision Genome Engineering and Synthetic Biology
The Biological Code of Cell Signaling
Integrating Metabolism and Tumor Biology
Immunity to Veterinary Pathogens:
Informing Vaccine Development Dendritic Cells and Macrophages Reunited
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This page was last updated on 03rd Dec, 2014
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