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As per available reports about 50 open access articles, 11 Scientific conferences, 7 national symposiums are presently dedicated exclusively to adaptive immune system and about 6 speakers gave presentations on adaptive immune system.
The adaptive immune system, also known as the acquired immunity or, more rarely, as the specific immune system, is a subsystem of the overall immune system that is composed of highly specialized, systemic cells and processes that eliminate or prevent pathogen growth. One of the two main immunity strategies found in vertebrates (the other being the innate immune system), acquired immunity creates immunological memory after an initial response to a specific pathogen, leading to an enhanced response to subsequent encounters with that same pathogen. This process of acquired immunity is the basis of vaccination. Like the innate system, the adaptive system includes both humoral immunity components and cell-mediated immunity components. Unlike, innate immunity, adaptive immunity are highly specific to a specific pathogen. Adaptive immunity can also provide long-lasting protection: for example; someone who recovers from measles is now protected against measles for their lifetime but in other cases it does not provide a life time protection: for example; chickenpox. The adaptive system response destroys invading pathogens and any toxic molecules they produce. Sometimes the adaptive system is unable to distinguish foreign molecules, the effects of this may be hayfever, asthma or any other allergies. Antigens are any subtances that elicit the adaptive immune response. The ones in charged to carry the adaptive immune response are the white blood cells also known as lymphocytes. There are two main broad classes- antibody responses and cell mediated immune response which are also carried by two different lymphocytes (B cells and T cells). In antibody responses, B cells are activated to secrete antibodies, which are proteins and are also known as immunoglobulins. Antibodies travel through the bloodstream and then bind to the foreign antigen causing it to inactivate in which does not allow the antigen to bind to the host. In acquired immunity, pathogen-specific receptors are "acquired" during the lifetime of the organism (whereas in innate immunity pathogen-specific receptors are already encoded in the germline). The acquired response is said to be "adaptive" because it prepares the body's immune system for future challenges (though it can actually also be maladaptive when it results in autoimmunity).
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Global revenue for vaccine technologies was nearly $31.8 billion in 2011. This market is expected to increase from $33.6 billion in 2012 to $43.4 billion in 2017 at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 5.3%.An overview of the global market for human and animal (veterinary) vaccines and related vaccine technologies. Analyses of global market trends, with data from 2010, 2011 and 2012, and projections of compound annual growth rates (CAGRs) through 2017. Examination of current and future strategies within the human and animal (veterinary) vaccines markets, including attenuated (live) vaccines, inactivated (killed) vaccines, conjugate vaccines, recombinant/recombinant DNA (rDNA) vaccines, subunit vaccines, toxoid vaccines, and combination vaccines. A breakdown of the seven major categories of vaccines broken down by market shares belonging to leading manufacturers and/or suppliers. Discussion of human and animal (veterinary) vaccines as to their prophylactic or therapeutic use, with emphasis in the meningococcal/pneumococcal vaccines, influenza vaccines, pediatric vaccines, adult/adolescent vaccines, and travel vaccines.
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This page was last updated on 14th Sep, 2015
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