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Genetic/ DNA immunization is a novel technique used to efficiently stimulate humoral and cellular immune responses to protein antigens. The direct injection of genetic material into a living host causes a small amount of its cells to produce the introduced gene products. This inappropriate gene expression within the host has important immunological consequences, resulting in the specific immune activation of the host against the gene delivered antigen (Koprowski et al, 1998).
Traditional Vaccines: The development of vaccination against harmful pathogenic microorganisms represents an important advancement in the history of modern medicine. In the past, traditional vaccination has relied on two specific types of microbiological preparations to produce material for immunization and generation of a protective immune response. These two categories involve either living infectious material that has been manufactured in a weaker state and therefore inhibits the vaccine from causing disease, or inert, inactivated, or subunit preparations.
Live attenuated vaccines stimulate protective immune responses when they replicate in the host. The viral proteins produced within the host are released into the extracellular space surrounding the infected cells and are then acquired, internalized and digested by scavenger cells that circulate the body. These cells are called antigen presenting cells (APCs) and include macrophages, dendritic cells, and B cells, which work together to expand immune response. The APCs recirculate fragments of the digested the antigen to their surface, attached to MHC class IIantigens. This complex of foreign peptide antigen plus host MHC class II antigens forms part of the specific signal with which APCs along with the MHC peptide complex, trigger the action of of immune cells, the T helper lymphocytes. The second part of the activation signal comes from the APCs themselves, which display on their cell surface constimulatory molecules along with MHC-antigen complexes. Both drive T call expansion and activation through interaction with their respective ligands, the T cell receptor complex (TCR) and the constimulatory receptors CD28/CTLA4, present on the the T cell surface. Activated T cells secrete molecules that act as powerful activates of immune cells. Also as viral proteins are produced within the host cells, small parts of these proteins surface, chaperoned by host cell MHC class I antigens. These complexes together are recognized by a second class of T cells, killer or cytotoxic cells. This recognition, along with other stimulation by APCs and production of cytokine by stimulated T cells, is responsible for the developments of mature cytotoxic T cells (CTL) capable of destroying infected cells. In most instances live infection induces life long immunity. Although live attenuated preparations are the vaccines of choice they do pose the risk of reversion to their pathogenic form, Causing infection .
In contrast, when inoculated nonlive vaccines composed of whole or even partial viruses are not produced within the host cells, they mainly end up in the extracellular space. They provide protection by directly generating T helper and humoral immune responses against the pathogenic immunogen. In the absence of the cellular production of the foreign antigen, these vaccines are usually devoid of the ability to induce significant T cytotoxic responses. In addition, these vaccines are not actually produced in the host, and therefore, they are not customized by the host. The immunity induced by their vaccines frequently decreases during the life of the host and may require additional boosters to achieve lifelong immunity. However, nonlive vaccines offer some important advantages over live vaccines: they are produced earlier, and they can be designed to contain only the specific antigenic target of the pathogen that is involved in the development of protective immunity and exclude all other viral components.
OMICS International Organizes 1000+ Global Events. Every Year across USA, Europe & Asia with support from 1000 more scientific societies and Publishes 700+ Open Accesswhich contains over 100000 eminent personalities, reputed scientists as editorial board and organizing committee members. The Conference serieswebsite will provide you list and details about the conference organize worldwide.
Scope & Importance Global revenue for vaccine technologies was nearly $31.8 billion in 2011. This market is expected to increase from $33.6 billion in 2012 to $43.4 billion in 2017 at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 5.3%.An overview of the global market for human and animal (veterinary) vaccines and related vaccine technologies. Analyses of global market trends, with data from 2010, 2011 and 2012, and projections of compound annual growth rates (CAGRs) through 2017. Examination of current and future strategies within the human and animal (veterinary) vaccines markets, including attenuated (live) vaccines, inactivated (killed) vaccines, conjugate vaccines, recombinant/recombinant DNA (rDNA) vaccines, subunit vaccines, toxoid vaccines, and combination vaccines. A breakdown of the seven major categories of vaccines broken down by market shares belonging to leading manufacturers and/or suppliers. Discussion of human and animal (veterinary) vaccines as to their prophylactic or therapeutic use, with emphasis in the meningococcal/pneumococcal vaccines, influenza vaccines, pediatric vaccines, adult/adolescent vaccines, and travel vaccines.
: Conferences from OMICS International: :
Protein Engineering Conference October 26-28, 2015 Chicago, USA
Vaccines Middle East Conference September 28-30, 2015 Dubai, UAE
Vaccines Asia Pacific Conference November 10-12, 2016 Melbourne, Australia
Vaccines 2015 November 30-December 02, 2015 San Francisco, USA
Euro Vaccines Conference June 16-18, 2016 Rome, Italy
Hepatities Vaccines Conference June 16-18, 2016 Rome, Italy
Hiv Vaccines Conference Oct 3-5, 2016 Miami, USA
Vaccines USA Conference November 30-December 02, 2015 San Francisco, USA
Proteomics Conference September 01-03, 2015 Valencia, Spain
World Proteomics Conference March 29-30, 2016 Atlanta, USA
Conferences out of OMICS:
2015 IMMUNIZATION SUMMIT! NAMPA, IDAHO MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 21, 2015
14th Annual Measles and Rubella Initiative Meeting: Focusing on the Human and Financial Costs of Measles Washington, USA September 15-16, 2015
19th Annual Conference on Vaccine Research April 18-20, 2016 Baltimore, MD
Clinical Vaccinology Course Bethesda, MD November 13, 2015
9th Vaccine & ISV Congress 18-20 October 2015 | Lotte Hotel, Seoul, South Korea
2016 North Dakota State Immunization Conference August 3-4, 2016, Bismarck, ND
Relevant societies and associations:
Immunization Action Coalition
The International Society for Vaccines
Center for Knowledge Societies
Applied Research on Cancer (ARC-NET)
The network of National Cancer Institutions of Latin America (RINC)
American Cancer Society
African Organization for Research & Training in Cancer (AORTIC)
GAVI, THE VACCINE ALLIANCE
Centre of Genomics and Policy (CGP)
Vaccine Delivery Innovation Initiative
Four Seasons Pharmacy
Dubai Health authority
Antivenom & vaccine Production centre
The centre for food security &public Health
National Institute of Agrobiological SciencesGenebank
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This page was last updated on 03rd Sep, 2015
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