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Radioactivity is the process by which a nucleus of an unstable atom loses energy by emitting ionizing radiation. A material that spontaneously emits such radiation which includes alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays and conversion electrons is considered radioactive.
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A new type of radioactivity witnessed - the emission of positive electrons- shows that the proton and neutron play a symmetrical role in the nucleus. If a neutron becomes a proton, there is an emission of a negative electron and if it is the proton that becomes a neutron, a positive electron is emitted. This signifies that certain nuclear forces (both strong and weak) do not rely on the presence of an electrical charge. The ability given to man to create at will radioactive isotopes of all elements has found some uses in all fields of knowledge. Radioactive isotopes, having exactly the same chemical and physical properties as stable isotopes, it suffices to add a small amount of radioisotopes, that act as a tracer or marker, to allow one to follow the development of the chemical elements. This tool has revolutionized biology. Until then, the analysis of organs and tissues was static; it is now possible to watch their biochemical change and measure the speed of the transformation of the living matter. If both medicine and biology have been revolutionized by the discovery of artificial radioactivity, other sectors would have also benefitted from it.
Radioactive decay rates are normally expressed in terms of their half-lives and the half- life of a given nuclear species is affiliated to its radiation risk. The different kinds of radioactivity leads to several decay paths which transform the nuclei into other chemical elements. Radioactive dating is done by checking the amounts of the decay products makes possible. α radiation (alpha)- A helium atom nucleus which is a slow moving particle, having a short range in air. These particles are extremely dangerous inside the body. But they are non-penetrable, causing no harm outside the body. The speed of α radiation is about 0.1 of the speed of light.
The radiation has two elementary positive charges as well as the particle has considerable mass. β radiation (beta) -an electron or β- ejected from the nucleus when a neutron spontaneously changes to a proton. They are fast moving particle, about 0.9 of the speed of light. They are penetrable through skin and have a reasonably long range in air, about 1 meter. They are negatively charged and are having very little mass. Β-radiation is very much dangerous if ingested. γ radiation (gamma)- The Most energetic form of electromagnetic radiation. Each bit (photon) has 1 million times as much energy (or 1 thousand times more energy than an X-ray photon) compared to light.
Radioactivity conference aims to bring together leading academic scientists, researchers and research scholars to exchange and share their experiences and research results about all aspects of:
It also provides the platform for researchers, scholars and educators to present and discuss the most recent innovations, trends, and concerns, practical challenges encountered and the solutions adopted in the field of Radioactivity.
The factors coincide with the availability of a new generation of nuclear power reactors, and in 2004 the first of the late third-generation units was ordered for Finland - a 1600 MWe European PWR (EPR). A similar unit is being built France as the first of a possible full fleet replacement there, and more are planned in the UK. In the USA the 2005 Energy Policy Act provided incentives for establishing new-generation power reactors there, and the first four AP1000 reactors are under construction. But plans in Europe and North America are overshadowed by those in China, India and South Korea. China alone plans and is building towards a huge increase in nuclear power capacity by 2020, and has more than one hundred further large units proposed and backed by credible political determination and popular support. A large portion of these are the latest western design, expedited by modular construction. The history of nuclear power thus starts with science in Europe, blossoms in UK and USA with the latter's technological might, languishes for a few decades, then has a new growth spurt in east Asia.
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