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Pulmonary hypertension is a type of high blood pressure that affects the arteries in the lungs and the right side of your heart. Pulmonary hypertension begins when tiny arteries in your lungs, called pulmonary arteries, and capillaries become narrowed, blocked or destroyed. This makes it harder for blood to flow through your lungs, and raises pressure within your lungs' arteries. As the pressure builds, your heart's lower right chamber must work harder to pump blood through your lungs, eventually causing your cardiac muscle to weaken and eventually fail. Pulmonary hypertension is a serious illness that becomes progressively worse and is sometimes fatal. Although pulmonary hypertension isn't curable, treatments are available that can help lessen symptoms and improve your quality of life.
Pulmonary hypertension worsens over time and is life-threatening because the pressure in a patient's pulmonary arteries rises to dangerously high levels, putting a strain on the heart. There is no cure for PAH, but several medications are available to treat symptoms. With pulmonary hypertension, the rise in blood pressure is caused by changes in the cells that line your pulmonary arteries. These changes cause extra tissue to form, eventually narrowing or completely blocking the blood vessels, making the arteries stiff and narrow. This makes it harder for blood to flow, raising the blood pressure in the pulmonary arteries.
Treatment is determined by whether the Pulmonary Hypertension is arterial, venous, hypoxic, thromboembolic, or miscellaneous. Since pulmonary venous hypertension is synonymous with congestive heart failure, the treatment is to optimize left ventricular function by the use of diuretics, beta blockers, ACE inhibitors etc., or to repair/replace the mitral valve or aortic valve.
Pathogenesis in pulmonary hypertension owing to cardiac disease is completely different in that constriction or damage to the pulmonary blood vessels is not the issue. Instead, the left heart fails to pump blood efficiently, leading to pooling of blood in the lungs and back pressure within the pulmonary system. This causes pulmonary edema and pleural effusions.
Scope and Importance:
Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, cerebrovascular events and ischaemic heart diseases, so is therefore one of the most important preventable causes of premature morbidity and mortality in developed and developing countries. It is often symptomless, so screening is vital before damage is done. Many surveys continue to show that hypertension remains underdiagnosed, undertreated and poorly controlled. Overall, the prevalence of hypertension (at least ≥140/90 mm Hg or on treatment) in those aged over 35 was observed to be 32% in men and 27% in women.
Blood Pressure has a skewed normal distribution within the population and the currently accepted model assumes risk is continuously related to BP. Essential hypertension (primary, cause unknown) accounts for the majority of cases, particularly in the older patient.
Hypertension 2016 is an international platform for presenting research about Hypertension and related concepts, sharing alternative ideas about the severe cardiovascular risk factor, thus contributing to the dissemination of information about the trouble for the welfare of the society.
High blood pressure or hypertension is the most important risk factor for cardiovascular disease.In over 90% of cases there may be no identifiable cause of hypertension, in which case the condition is known as essential hypertension. The remaining 10% of cases, hypertension may be secondary in nature as a consequence of another medical problem, such as kidney disorders, adrenal tumours, or some drugs.
The prevalence of hypertension is forecasted to grow from 234 million in 2010 to 246 million in 2016 across the seven major markets (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, UK, US, and Japan). In 2016, the US is still expected to be the largest market for hypertension, with an anticipated 83 million sufferers, followed by Japan at 49 million. According to the International Society of Hypertension, there is a clear recognition of hypertension as a major public health issue across all the 7MM.
The global cardiovascular market recorded a sale of $170bn in the year 2010 and is set to grow to $187bn in 2016 at a CAGR of 1.6%. The US continued to be the largest market, with a share of 40% of the overall market. Antihypertensives remained the largest drug class in the year 2010, with a global sale of $37.6bn and a global market share of 22%.
The global market for hypertension management devices is a variable and dynamic market that will experience a strong growth through the year 2023 as an increasing number of devices would become available to address a largely unmet clinical needs.
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