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Protective immunity describes immunity at a high enough level to protect an individual from infection. Protective immunity can be attained as a result of a vaccine, or as a result of acquiring a particular disease. An adaptive immune response is definite to the antigen that stirred it (called the immunogen). However, many naturally occurring 'antigens' are a mixture of macromolecules (e.g. from pathogens, toxins, proteins, pollen) comprising numerous epitopes. Contact with a complex antigen such as a virus will stimulate multiple immune responses to the virus' different macromolecules as well as the individual epitopes of each macromolecule. For example, the tetanus toxin is a single protein macromolecular antigen but will stimulate many immune responses due to the tertiary structure of the protein yielding many different epitopes. The toxin that creates the immune response will have an epitope on it that stimulates the response. Denaturing the protein may 'disarm' its function but allow the immune system to have an immune response thus creating immunity without harming the patient.
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Scope and Importance:
The concept of protective autoimmunity is relatively new, and it has been shadowed by the historic and yet dominant view of autoimmunity as a damaging factor. Skepticism towards protective autoimmunity has been further fueled by the general concept of the CNS as being an immune privileged site in which immune cell activity is observed only under pathological conditions. Nevertheless, studies during the last decade have established that the immune system has the capacity to orchestrate a multitude of beneficial effects in the adult CNS under both normal and pathological conditions. Such effects range from the molecular level (growth factor production, buffering of toxic self compounds) through the cellular level (induction of axonal regrowth and neurogenesis) to the behavioral level (maintenance of spatial memory).
The global immunology market will be valued at $24.10 Billion in 2015. It is expected to grow at a CAGR of 13.58% to reach $45.55 Billion by 2020. Increasing healthcare and R&D expenditure are the key growth drivers in this market. However, poorly suited regulatory & reimbursement systems, high cost of tests and sample collection & storage may hinder the growth of this market.
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This page was last updated on 12th Sep, 2015
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