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As per available reports about 125 Conference Proceedings, 1 relevant journals , 16 Conferences , 21 National symposiums are presently dedicated exclusively to Neoplasms and about 82 articles which are hosed by OMICS International.
A neoplasm is an abnormal mass of tissue , the growth of which exceeds and is uncoordinated with that of the normal tissues, and persists in the same excessive manner after cessation of the stimulus which evoked the change." The body is made up of trillions of cells that grow, divide, and die in an orderly fashion. This process is a tightly regulated one that is controlled by the DNA machinery within the cell . When a person is growing up, the cells of the body rapidly divide, but once adulthood is reached, cells generally only divide to replace worn-out, dying cells or to repair injured cells.
Importance and Scope
Neoplasms is a generic term for a large group of diseases that can affect any part of the body. Other terms used are malignant tumors and cancer. Metastases are the major cause of death from cancer. Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for 8.2 million deaths in 2012. About 12.7 million cancer cases and 7.6 million cancer deaths are estimated to have occurred in 2008 worldwide, with 56% of the cases and 64% of the deaths in the economically developing world. Breast cancer, the most common tumour in women, presents a high survival percentage: 83% of patients have survived this type of cancer after five years. Lung cancer is one of the most aggressive tumors and survival after five years is very low: only 10% of patients diagnosed with a malignant neoplasm survive for more than five years. Colorectal cancer (of the colon and rectum), the most common malignant tumour if we group men and women together, presents an average survival rate of 50-55% five years after diagnosis, meaning that half the patients survive this form of cancer. Prostate cancer, today the most common tumour in men, has an increasingly favorable prognosis, with a global survival rate of 76%, which is higher in young adults. Ovarian cancer presents a very varied prognosis depending on age: whilst 70% of the group between 15 and 44 years survives this form of cancer, this is the case for only 19% of those over 74 years-old.
The different types of neoplasm include:
• Benign or non-cancerous- Benign neoplasms are non-cancerous forms of tissue proliferation such as skin moles, lipomas or uterine fibroids. These neoplasms do no not become cancerous and mainly cause problems due to their space-occupying nature.
• Pre-malignant or pre-cancerous- Precancerous neoplasms are masses that have the potential to become cancerous. The earliest form of precancer is dysplasia. The cells proliferate only in their site of origin and do not spread. However, dysplasia may become high-grade and develop intocarcinoma in situ which carries a high risk of turning into cancer
• Malignant or cancerous- These terms are used to describe neoplasms that have become cancerous, as defined by the following distinct features, Abnormal cell growth, Capacity to invade other tissues , Capacity to spread to distant organs via blood vessels or lymphatic channels (metastasis).These cancers have the capacity to take over the whole body and eventually kill the host.
Causes of Neoplasia:
The origin for many neoplasms is obscure. However, there are several theories of origin.
• Chemicals: including those that are man-made (such as aniline dyes and bladder cancer), drugs (cigarette smoke and lung cancer), and natural compounds (aflatoxins and liver cancer) which are carcinogenic.
• Oncogenic viruses: such as human papillomavirus (HPV) implicated in most squamous a href=" http://stemcell.omicsgroup.com/ " > cell carcinomas of cervix and anogenital squamous papillomas, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) implicated in African Burkitt's lymphoma, and hepatitis B virus (HBV) implicated in development of hepatocellular carcinomas.
• Radiation: including ultraviolet light that induces pyrimidine dimers in DNA and promotes skin cancers . Ionizing radiation (such as gamma radiation) induces mutations in DNA and promotes malignancies such as leukemia, thyroid, lung, colon, and breast cancers.
• Hereditary causes: Chromosomes which have absent or defective anti-oncogenes that control growth (retinoblastoma results from defective chromosome 13)
• Obscure defects: Racial predilections (American women have breast cancer more often than Japanese women; Japanese men have stomach cancer far more often than American men).
• Age: Older persons have a greater propensity to develop neoplasms from lack of effective control mechanisms.
Diagnosis of Neoplasia:
-History and Physical Examination: What the health care worker learns from talking to the patient and through direct examination may give clues to the presence of a neoplasm. Signs and symptoms such as weight loss , fatigue, and pain may be present. A mass may be palpable or visible.
Radiographic Techniques: The use of plain films (x-rays), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), mammography, and ultrasonography (US) may be very helpful to detect the presence and location of mass lesions. The findings from these methods may aid in staging and determination of therapy.
-Laboratory Analyses: General findings such as anemia, http://weightloss.global-summit.com/europe/ enzyme abnormalities (such as an increased alkaline phosphatase), and hematuria or positive stool occult blood are helpful to suggest further workup. Tumor markers in serum such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), or human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) can be performed. Unfortunately, they are not all that specific or sensitive, particularly when applied as screening tests to a general population. More specific testing, such as measurement of prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels, may help to determine the presence of specific neoplasms, but such tests are not perfect screening tools in a general population.
-Genetic Testing: Genetic markers include chromosomal alterations (translocations, deletions, duplication, etc.); specific gene defects; single nucleotide polymorphisms, and gene rearrangements. Detection of specific genes (such as BRCA-1 for breast cancer) may suggest an increased risk for some malignancies. Cytology: Methods that sample cells can be simple and cost-effective and minimally invasive. A good example is the Pap smear for diagnosis of cervical dysplasias and neoplasms. a href=" http://stemcell.omicsgroup.com/ " > cells exfoliated into body fluids may also be examined. Fine needle aspiration (FNA) can be used to sample a variety of mass lesions.
-Tissue Biopsy and Surgery: Methods that sample small pieces of tissue (biopsy) from a particular site, often via endoscopic techniques (such as colonoscopy, upper endoscopy, or bronchoscopy) can often yield a specific diagnosis of malignancy. At surgery, portions of an organ or tissue can be sampled, or the diseased tissue(s) removed and examined in surgical pathology to determine the stage and grade of the neoplasm.
-Autopsy: Sometimes neoplasms are not detected or completely diagnosed during life. The autopsy serves as a means of quality assurance for clinical diagnostic methods, as a way of confirming diagnoses helpful in establishing risks for family members, as a means for gathering statistics for decision making about how to approach diagnosis and treatment of neoplasms, and to provide material for future research.
Globally, the burden of new cancer cases in the year 2000 was estimated to be around 10.1 million, developing world contributing to 53% of this load. The burden of cancer is increasing worldwide despite advances in cancer diagnosis and treatment. However, the worldwide cancer statistics depict that14.1 million adults in the world were diagnosed with cancer and 8.2 million deaths occurred in 2012.
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