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A molecular marker is a molecule contained within a sample taken from an organism (biological markers) or other matter. It can be used to reveal certain characteristics about the respective source. DNA, for example, is a molecular marker containing information about genetic disorders, genealogy and the evolutionary history of life. Specific regions of the DNA (genetic markers) are used to diagnose the autosomal recessive genetic disorder cystic fibrosis, taxonomic affinity (phylogenetics) and identity (DNA Barcoding). Further, life forms are known to shed unique chemicals, including DNA, into the environment as evidence of their presence in a particular location. Other biological markers, like proteins, are used in diagnostic tests for complex neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease. Non-biological molecular markers are also used, for example, in environmental studies. Personalized Medicine in Animal Models, Gene sequencing that entails predicting the probability of disease and instituting preventive measures in order to either prevent the disease altogether or significantly decrease its impact upon the patient (such as by preventing mortality or limiting morbidity).
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Scope and Importance:
It has 5 applications in fisheries and aquaculture: Species Identification. Genetic variation and population structure study in natural populations, Comparison between wild and hatchery populations, Assessment of demographic bottleneck in natural population, Propagation assisted rehabilitation programs. However, there still exist some limitations.
In genetics, a molecular marker is a fragment of DNA that is associated with a certain location within the genome. Molecular markers are used in molecular biology and biotechnology to identify a particular sequence of DNA in a pool of unknown DNA. Application: It has 5 applications in fisheries and aquaculture: • Species identification • Genetic variation and population structure study in natural populations • Comparison between wild and hatchery populations • Assessment of demographic bottleneck in natural population • Propagation assisted rehabilitation programmer. However, there still exist some limitations. A molecular marker is a site of heterozygosis for some type of silent dna variation not associated with any measurable phenotypic variation. Such a “DNA locus,” when heterozygous, can be used in mapping analysis just as a conventional heterozygous allele pair can be used. Because molecular markers can be easily detected and are so numerous in a genome, when they are mapped by linkage analysis, they fill the voids between genes of known phenotype. Note that, in mapping, the biological significance of the DNA marker is not important in itself; the heterozygous site is merely a convenient reference point that will be useful in finding one’s way around the chromosomes. In this way, markers are being used just as milestones were used by travelers in previous centuries. Travelers were not interested in the milestones (markers) themselves, but they would have been disoriented without them. The two basic types of molecular markers are those based on restriction-site variation and on repetitive DNA.
Market analysis would be used, rather than direct examination of the gene, for several reasons: 1. The gene location is known, but the gene sequence has not yet been determined and thus cannot be analyzed directly. But if markers exist close to the gene locus, then the mutant gene can be inferred through marker analysis. 2. Marker analysis is much faster analysis then directs gene sequencing. 3. Marker analysis is much cheaper then gene analysis. Marker analysis can generally be performed for under $200, while a complete screen of a gene can be several thousand dollars.
International symposium and workshops:
1. Genomics and Personalized Medicine
February 7-11, 2016, Canada
2. Genomics in Medicine
February 19-20, 2015, USA
3. Symposium: Personalized Cancer Medicine
June 29 - 30, 2015, France
4. JIM Symposium in Personalized Medicine
August 5, Sweden
September 22-24, 2016 Berlin, Germany
November 28-30, 2016 Chicago, USA
November 17-19, 2016 San Francisco, USA
April 25-27, 2016 Valencia, Spain
October 31- November 02, 2016 Valencia, Spain
September 12-14, 2016 Berlin, Germany
July 18-20, 2016 Berlin, Germany
October 13-15, 2016 Dubai, UAE
9. 10th Biotech Congress
July 25-27, 2016 Bangkok, Thailand
October 10-12, 2016 Dubai, UAE
11. 4th Plant Genomics Conference
July 14-15, 2016 Brisbane, Australia
12. Personalized Medicine World Congress
January 24-27, Silicon Valley
13. Realizing Personalized Medicine through Integrative Medicine, Science and Technology
July 10-15, 2016
Relevant Society and Associations
1. The European Personalized Medicine Association
3. European Alliance for Personalized Medicine
4. Biotechnology Industry Organization
5. American Medical Association
6. Society of general Internal medicine
7. International society of internal medicine
8. Canadian society of internal medicine
9. Internal medicine professional societies
10. Cornell internal medicine associates
11. Wake internal medicine associates
1. Fierce Biotech
3. PM coalition
5. Chapel Hill Internal Medicine
6. Erland Internal medicine
7. Comprehensive internal medicine
8. Dillon internal medicine
9. Annapolis internal medicine
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This page was last updated on December 1, 2020