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As per available reports about 25 Open Access Journals, 25 Conferences, 466 open access articles are presently dedicated exclusively seed technology and GM crops and about 1588 conference proceedings are being published on seed technology and GM crops.
Seeds are the delivery systems for agricultural biotechnology. High quality seed leads to excellent seedling performance in the field. It is the ultimative basis of successful companies that breed crop plants for seed production. Seed quality is a complex trait that is determined by interactions between multiple genetic factors and environmental conditions. Modern approches to improve seed quality therefore combine classical genetics, plant molecular biology and a variety of seed technologies. These "seed biotechnologies" enhance physiological quality, vigor and synchronity to establish a crop in the field under diverse environmental conditions.
Seed technologies (seed enhancements, seed treatments) include priming, pelleting, coating, artificial seeds, and other novel seed treatment methods of applied seed biology. Our basic and applied seed research projects focus on embryo growth and on the different seed covering layers (e.g. testa, endosperm, pericarp), which are determinants of seed quality and exhibit the biodiversity of seed structures. Seed germination is controlled by environmental factors (light, temperature, water) and on plant hormones as endogenous regulators (gibberellins, abscisic acid, ethylene, auxin, cytokinins, brassinosteroids). The utilization of plant hormones and inhibitors of their biosynthesis and action in seed treatment technologies affects seed germination and seedling emergence. The genes, enzymes, signaling components and down-stream targets of plant hormones provide molecular marker for seed quality and seedling performance.
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Conferences and Symposiums of OMICS International enlightens your research path by gathering scientific professionals from across the globe to discuss the recent scientific discoveries done followed by the interactive sessions through B2B meetings and scientific partnering. The importance and significance of OMICS International Conferences can be gauged by the fact that it has made huge advancements over the course of time and is continuing to influence various sectors.
Scope and Importance:
Seed Technology Includes:
Mechanical seed enhancements
Seed coating and pelleting
Seed priming and pregerminated seed
Molecular farming using seeds as hosts
Mechanical seed enhancements:
The methods to improve seed quality by mechanical techniques include polishing off or rubbing off seed coat (testa) or fruit coat (pericarp) projections or hairs ('abgeriebenes Saatgut'), sorting into defined seed size classes or sorting by seed density. Examples:
Sugar beet fruits, where polishing removes projections of the pericarp/perianth, which is followed by sorting into defined seed size classes.
Seed coating and pelleting:
Important methods to enhance seed and seedling performance are through addition of chemicals to protect the seed from pathogens and/or to improve germination. Different techniques of seed coating ('Saatgutbeschichtung') and seed pelleting ('Pillierung') are used for this.
This method allows the chemicals to be applied in a synthetic polymer that is sprayed onto the seeds and provide a solid, thin coat covering them. The advantage of the polymers is that they adhere tightly to the seed and prevent loss of active materials like fungicides, nutrients, colorants or plant hormones. Some novel applications of film coating are used to modify imbibition and germination. They can confer temperature-sensitive water permeability to seeds or affect gaseous exchange. By this they control the timing of seed germination and seedling emergence. Certain temperature-dependent water-resistant polymers can delay imbibition until the climatic conditions become suitable for continued seedling growth.
It adds thicker artificial coverings to seeds, which can be used to cover irregular seed shapes and add chemicals to the pellet matrix, e.g. of sugar beet or vegetable seeds. The pellet matrix consists of filling materials and glue. Loam, starch, tyllose (cellulose derivative) or polyacrylate/polyacrylamide polymers are commercially used. A film coat can be added onto the pelleting layer as shown in the figure above.
Seed pelleting is also used to increase the size of very small horticultural seeds. This provides improved planting features, e.g. singulate planting, the use of planting machines, or precise placement and visibility in/on the soil. The images below this text are examples for pelleting of very small horticultural seeds.
Seed priming and pregerminated seed:
Seed priming is the most important physiological seed enhancement method. Seed priming is an hydration treatment that allows controlled imbibition and induction of the pregerminative metabolism ("activation"), but radicle emergence is prevented. The hydration treatment is stopped before desiccation tolerance is lost. An important problem is to stop the priming process in the right moment; this time depends on the species and the seed batch. Molecular marker can be used to control the priming process. Priming solutions can be supplemented with plant hormones or beneficial microorganisms. The seeds can be dried back for storage, distribution and planting. Germination speed and synchronism of primed seeds are enhanced (see figures below) and can be interpreted in the way that priming increases seed vigor (short or no "activation" time). A wider temperature range for germination, release of dormancy and faster emergence of uniform seedlings is achieved. This leads to better crop stands and higher yields. A practical drawback of primed seeds is often a decrease in storability and the need for cool storage temperatures.
Dormancy of crop and horticultural seeds is an unwanted trait for horticulture. However, a certain degree of dormancy is required to prevent viviparous germination on the plant, e.g. preharvest sprouting of cereal crops.
According to the International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-Biotech Applications (ISAAA), approximately 18 million farmers grew biotech crops in 28 countries; about 94% of the farmers were resource-poor in developing countries. 53% of the global biotech crop area of 181.5 million hectares was grown in 20 developing countries. The global value of biotech seed was US$15.7 billion; US$11.3 billion (72%) was in industrial countries and US$4.4 billion (28%) was in the developing countries.
Several types of seed priming are commonly used:
This is the standard priming technique. Seeds are incubated in well aerated solutions with a low water potential, and afterwards washes and dried. The low water potential of the solutions can be achieved by adding osmotica like mannitol, polyethyleneglycol (PEG) or salts like KCl.
Hydropriming (drum priming):
This is achieved by continuous or successive addition of a limited amount of water to the seeds. A drum is used for this purpose and the water can also be applied by humid air. 'On-farm steeping' is the cheep and useful technique that is practized by incubating seeds (cereals, legumes) for a limited time in warm water.
This is the incubation of seeds in a solid, insoluble matrix (vermiculite, diatomaceous earth, cross-linked highly water-absorbent polymers) with a limited amount of water. This method confers a slow imbibition.
Pregerminated seeds are only possible with a few species. In contrast to normal priming, seeds are allowed to perform radical protrusion. This is followed by sorting for specific stages, a treatment that re-induces desiccation tolerance, and drying. The use of pregerminated seeds causes rapid and uniform seedling development.
1. Plant Science Conference, September 21-23, 2015 San Antonio, USA
June 27-29, 2016 Cape Town, South Africa
4. Euro Biomass Conference, August 01-03, 2016 Birmingham, UK
5. 5th Biodiversity Conference, March 10-12, 2016 Madrid, Spain
6. 2nd Geology Conference, April 21-22, 2016 Dubai, UAE
8. Plant Physiology Conference, June 09-11, 2016 Dallas, USA
10. 6th Biotechnology Conference, October 05-07, 2015 New Delhi, India
11. World Bio Summit, November 02-04, 2015 Dubai, UAE
12. 1st Proximal Sensing Supporting Precision Agriculture Conference, Italy
13. Agricultural Statistics 2015 Conference, Malaysia
14. 5th Organic Agriculture Sciences Conference, Slovakia
15. 7th Crop Science Congress, China
16. 1st Plant Protection Congress 2015, Germany
17. Perennial Biomass Crops for a Resource Constrained World, Germany
18. Agriculture, Ecology and Biological Engineering Conference, Turkey
19. 3rd Sustainable Environment and Agriculture Conference, USA
20. 6th Agriculture and Animal Science Conference, China
21. Sustainable Agriculture Technologies Conference, Thailand
22. 3rd Food and Agricultural Sciences Conference, UAE
American Agricultural Law Association, USA
American Farm Bureau Federation, USA
Ontario Association of Agricultural Societies, Canada
National Association of Wheat Growers, USA
African Rural and Agricultural Credit Association, Africa
American Association of Cereal Chemists, USA
American Poultry Association, USA
American Seed Trade Association, USA
Crop Science Society of America, USA
Western Society of Crop Science, USA
Crop and Weed Science Society, USA
Agriculture & Applied Economics Association, USA
Virginia Soybean Association, USA
American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, USA
The Royal Agricultural Society of England, UK
International Society for Horticultural Science, Belgium
The Horticultural Society of India, India
Ethiopian Horticulture Development Agency, Ethiopia
National Horticultural Society of France, France
Royal New Zealand Institute of Horticulture, New Zealand
Australian Organic Farming and Gardening Society, Australia
Wildflower Society of Western Australia, Australia
American Horticultural Society, USA
Massachusetts Horticultural Society, USA
International Food Policy Research Institute, USA
International Fund for Agriculture Development, Italy
Consortium for International Crop Protection, USA
Asian Association for Agricultural Engineering, China
Tropical Agricultural Association, UK
Canadian Society for Horticultural Science, Canada
Dole Food Company, USA
Mycogen Seeds, USA
Kinze Manufacturing, Inc., USA
Seaboard Corporation, USA
Burpee Seeds, USA
Cavendish Farms, Canada
Chiquita Brands International, USA
ContiGroup Companies, Belgium
Fredericksburg Farmers Cooperative, USA
Riceland Foods, USA
Zeeland Farm Services, USA
Vermeer Company, USA
Agria Corporation, China
AgriSA, South Africa
Alberta Wheat Pool, Canada
Bevo Agro Incorporated, Canada
Ceres Incorporated, Canada
Foundation for Agronomic Research, USA
Heritage Foods, India
MFA Incorporated, USA
Swire Group, UK
The Mosaic Company, USA
Wayne Farms, USA
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This page was last updated on 14th Sep, 2015
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