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The term vomiting describes the forceful expulsion of the contents of the stomach via the mouth or sometimes the nose, also known of as emesis. The causes of vomiting are as wide ranging as those for nausea and include anything from food poisoning or gastritis to head injuries and brain cancer. Nausea is the discomfort that is felt before vomiting but not all nausea actually results in vomiting. Regurgitation is a different condition from vomiting and the term regurgitation usually means expulsion of the undigested food from the food pipe or esophagus into the mouth, with none of the forceful expulsion or discomfort that is associated with nausea. The two conditions are different as are their underlying causes. Causes of vomiting: Vomiting, like nausea, is a symptom rather than a disease in itself. Sometimes it is the body's only way to eject a harmful or poisonous substance. Common causes of vomiting include:Gastrointestinal infections: Gastrointestinal disorders such as gastro esophageal reflux disease, ulcer, celiac, Crohn's disease, irritable bowel syndrome, pancreatitis and liver disease, Motion sickness and disorders of the inner ear, Morning sickness associated with pregnancy, Medications including cancer chemotherapy. Complications: People need immediate treatment for vomiting if they have been vomiting continuously for more than 24 hours, have been unable to keep down fluids for 12 hours or more, are expelling green, brown or red vomit, or are expelling undigested foods while suffering from severe abdominal pain. Prolonged vomiting may lead to dehydration and lack of essential electrolytes in the body. Diagnosis and treatment: Vomiting is a symptom of an underlying condition that needs to be diagnosed for treatment to be effective, Medications called antiemetic may help reduce nausea and vomiting by speeding up the emptying of the gut to relieve the nausea and uncomfortable feeling of fullness in the stomach, Examples include metoclopramide and domperidone, Severe vomiting due to cancer chemotherapy and anesthetic agents may be relieved with the use of ondansetron, promethazine, dimenhydrinate, dexamethasone or droperidol. Pregnancy induced vomiting and nausea may be relieved with the use of doxylamine. Causes in the digestive tract: Gastritis (inflammation of the gastric wall), Gastroenteritis, Gastro esophageal reflux disease, Pyloric stenosis (in babies, this typically causes a very forceful "projectile vomiting" and is an indication for urgent surgery), Bowel obstruction, Overeating, Acute abdomen and/or peritonitis, Ileus, Food allergies (often in conjunction with hives or swelling), Cholecystitis, pancreatitis, appendicitis, hepatitis, Food poisoning, In children, it can be caused by an allergic reaction to cow's milk proteins (Milk allergy or lactose intolerance).Sensory system and brain, Intoxication is one cause of vomiting. Causes in the sensory system movement: motion sickness (which is caused by overstimulation of the labyrinthine canals of the ear). Causes in the brain: Concussion, Cerebral hemorrhage, Migraine, Brain tumors, which can cause the chemoreceptor’s to malfunction benign intracranial hypertension and hydrocephalus, Metabolic disturbances (these may irritate both the stomach and the parts of the brain that coordinate vomiting), Hypocalcaemia (high calcium levels), Uremia (urea accumulation, usually due to renal failure), Adrenal insufficiency, Hypoglycemia, Hyperglycemia Pregnancy, Hyper emesis, Morning sickness, Drug reaction (vomiting may occur as an acute somatic response to) Alcohol (being sick while being drunk or being sick the next morning, suffering from the after-effects, i.e., the hangover), opioids, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, many chemotherapy drugs, some entheogens (such as peyote or ayahuasca), Norovirus (Formerly Norwalk virus or Norwalk agent) Swine Flu
OMICS International through its open access initiative hosts over highly valued 500 leading-edge peer reviewed Open Access Journals and organizes over 300 International Conferences annually all over the world. OMICS International Journals have around 50,000 Editorial and reviewers ensures the quality and fast editorial, review processing with time of publishing in just 21 days from the day of submission of manuscript. We have high accessibility across the scientific community with readership of more than 5 million. OMICS International signed an agreement with more than 1000 International Societies to make healthcare information Open Access. OMICS International brings in concert the work of leading minds in scientific organization all across the world to serve the civilization by making it possible for global allocation of knowledge through its Open Access Journals and Scientific Events. OMICS International conferences are the best venues for organizing our Medical Conferences, Engineering Conferences, Healthcare Conferences, Diabetes Conferences and many more. Number of Conferences, National Symposiums, and Workshops: Seven Conferences, Four Symposiums and Three workshops were held in different places. Companies: One in Asia, Two in USA, One in Europe, Three in Australia. Conference names: Biology and Control of Nausea and Vomiting Pitt Conference Brings Together International Experts in Nausea Vomiting. Association and Societies: American cancer society Society for Ambulatory Anesthesiology European society for medical oncology American society of clinical oncology American Gastroenterological Association Cyclic vomiting syndrome association UK. Companies: Canadian drug saver Salix pharmaceuticals, Inc National cancer institute Courtagen enabling precision medicine.
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This page was last updated on 17th Apr, 2015
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