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Hepatocellular carcinoma is a cancer that originates in the liver. Liver tumors are discovered on medical imaging equipment (often by accident) or present themselves symptomatically as an abdominal mass, abdominal pain, yellow skin, nausea or liver dysfunction The leading cause of Hepatocellular Carcinoma is viral infection with hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus. The cancer usually forms secondary to cirrhosis caused by these viruses. Hepatocellular carcinoma is a cancer formed by liver cells, known as hepatocytes, which become malignant. Another type of cancer formed by liver cells is hepatoblastoma, which is specifically formed by immature liver cells. It is a rare malignant tumor that primarily develops in children, and accounts for approximately 1% of all cancers in children and 79% of all primary liver cancers under the age of 15. Most of these tumors form in the right lobe. Hepatocellular Carcinoma can also form from other structures within the liver such as the bile duct, blood vessels and immune cells. Cancer of the bile duct (cholangiocarcinoma and cholangiocellular cystadenocarcinoma) account for approximately 6% of primary liver cancers. There is also a variant type of Hepatocellular carcinoma that consists of both Hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma. Tumors of the blood vessels (angiosarcoma and hemangioendothelioma, embryonal sarcoma and fibrosarcoma are produced from a type of connective tissue known as mesenchyme. Cancers produced from muscle in the liver are leiomyosarcoma and rhabdomyosarcoma. Because liver cancer is an umbrella term for many types of cancer, the signs and symptoms depend on what type of cancer is present. Cholangiocarcinoma is associated with sweating, jaundice, abdominal pain, weight loss and hepatomegaly. Hepatocellular carcinoma is associated with abdominal mass, abdominal pain, emesis, anemia, back pain, jaundice, itching, weight loss and fever. Viral infection with either hepatitis C virus (HCV) or Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the primary cause of liver cancer, accounting for 80% of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).The viruses cause HCC because massive inflammation, fibrosis and eventual cirrhosis occurs within the liver. HCC usually arises after cirrhosis, with an annual incidence of 1.7% in cirrhotic HCV-infected individuals around 5-10% of individuals that become infected with HBV become chronic carriers, and around 30% of these acquire chronic liver disease, which can lead to HCC HBV infection is also linked to cholangiocarcinoma. The role of viruses other than HCV or HBV in liver cancer is much less clear, although there is some evidence that co-infection of HBV and hepatitis D virus may increase the risk of HCC. Many genetic and epigenetic changes are formed in liver cells during HCV and HBV infection, which is a major factor in the production of the liver tumors. The viruses promote malignant characteristics of cells by altering gene methylation, affecting gene expression and promoting or repressing cellular signal transduction pathways. By doing this the viruses can prevent cells from undergoing a programmed form of cell death (apoptosis) and promote viral replication and persistence. Prevention of cancers can be separated into primary, secondary and tertiary prevention. Primary prevention preemptively reduces exposure to a risk factor for liver cancer. One of the most successful primary liver cancer preventions is vaccination against hepatitis B. Vaccination for hepatitis C virus is currently unavailable. Other forms of primary prevention are aimed at limiting transmission of these viruses by promotion of safe injection practice, screening of blood donation products and screening of high risk asymptomatic individuals. Aflatoxin exposure can be avoided by post-harvest intervention, which has been effective in West Africa. Reducing alcohol abuse, obesity, and diabetes would also reduce rates of liver cancer. Diet control in hemochromatosis could decrease the risk of iron overload, decreasing the risk of cancer. Secondary prevention includes both cure of the agent involved in the formation of cancer (carcinogenesis) and the prevention of carcinogenesis if this is not possible. Cure of virus-infected individuals is not possible, but treatment with antiviral drugs such as interferon can decrease the risk of liver cancer. Chlorophyll in may have potential in reducing the effects of aflatoxin. Tertiary prevention includes treatments to prevent the recurrence of liver cancer. These include the use of chemotherapy drugs, and antiviral drugs. Removing the tumor by either surgical resection or liver transplant can be used in the treatment of hepatoblastoma. In some cases surgery can offer a cure. Chemotherapy may be used before and after surgery and transplant Chemotherapy, including cisplatin, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, and doxorubicin are used for the systemic treatment of hepatoblastoma. Out of these drugs, cisplatin seems to be the most effective.
OMICS GROUP INTERNATIONAL through its Open Access Initiative is committed to make genuine and reliable contributions to the scientific community. An OMICS Group host over 400 leading-edge peer reviewed Open Access Journals and organizes over 300 International Conferences annually all over the world. OMICS Publishing Group journals have over 3 million readers and the fame and success of the same can be attributed to the strong editorial board which contains over 30000 eminent personalities that ensure a rapid, quality and quick review process. OMICS Group International is a pioneer and leading science event organizer, which publishes around 400 open access journals and conducts over 300 Medical, Clinical, Engineering, Life Sciences. Till now OMICS Group has organized 500 conferences, workshops and national symposiums across the major cities around globe.
Relevant Conferences from OMICS:
World Congress on Hepatitis.Florida, USA.
Relevant conferences out of OMICS:
5th International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmaceutics & Novel Drug Delivery Systems. Dubai, United Arab Emirates
The 5th Biennial Congress of the Asian-Pacific Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary
Global Academy for Medical Education's 14th Annual Caribbean Dermatology Symposium. St Maarten, Netherlands
Skin Disease Education Foundation's 39th Annual Hawaii Dermatology Seminar.Kauai, United States
12th International Conference on Finite Fields and Their Applications. Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, United States
Relevant Associations and Societies:
International Liver Cancer Association
American Association for the study of Liver Cancer
Cancer Society of New Zealand
The African Association of the study of liver cancer
Latin America Association for the study of liver
American Liver Foundation
Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver
British Association for the Study of the Liver
British Liver Trust
European liver and intestine transplant association
European liver patient association
Major Companies Associated with Hepatocellular carcinoma:
Merck & Co
This page will be updated regularly.
This page was last updated on 03rd Dec, 2014
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