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Deoxyribonucleic acid is a molecule that encrypts the genetic instructions Which are used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms and many viruses. DNA is a nucleic acid; it also contains proteins and carbohydrates, nucleic acids constitute the three major macromolecules essential for all known forms of life. DNA molecules mostly consist of two biopolymer strands coiled around each other to form a double helix. The two DNA strands are known as polynucleotides since they are made of simpler units called nucleotides. Each nucleotide is composed of a nitrogen-containing nucleobase—either guanine (G), adenine (A), thymine (T), or cytosine(C)—as well as a monosaccharide sugar called deoxyribose and a phosphate group. The nucleotides are joined to one another in a chain by covalent bonds between the sugar of one nucleotide and the phosphate of the next, resulting in an alternating sugar-phosphate backbone. According to base pairing rules (A with T and C with G), hydrogen bonds bind the nitrogenous bases of the two separate polynucleotide strands to make double-stranded DNA.
DNA is well-suited for biological information storage. The DNA backbone is resistant to cleavage, and both strands of the double-stranded structure store the same biological information. Biological information is replicated as the two strands are separated. A significant portion of DNA (more than 98% for humans) is non-coding, meaning that these sections do not serve a function of encoding proteins.
The two strands of DNA run in opposite directions to each other and are therefore anti-parallel. Attached to each sugar is one of four types of nucleobases (informally, bases). It is the sequence of these four nucleobases along the backbone that encodes biological information. Under the genetic code, RNA strands are translated to specify the sequence of amino acids within proteins. These RNA strands are initially created using DNA strands as a template in a process called transcription.
OMICS Group hosts over 400 leading-edge peer reviewed Open Access Journals and organize over 300 International Conferences annually all over the world. OMICS Publishing Group journals have over 3 million readers and the fame and success of the same can be attributed to the strong editorial board which contains over 30000 eminent personalities that ensure a rapid, quality and quick review process. OMICS Group signed an agreement with more than 500 International Societies to make healthcare information Open Access.
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This page was last updated on June 19, 2021