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The cell cycle, or cell-division cycle, is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication (replication) that produces two daughter cells. In cells without a nucleus (prokaryotic), the cell cycle occurs via a process termed binary fission. In cells with a nucleus (eukaryotes), the cell cycle can be divided in three periods: interphase—during which the cell grows, accumulating nutrients needed for mitosis preparing it for cell division and duplicating its DNA—and the mitotic (M) phase, during which the cell splits itself into two distinct cells, often called "daughter cells" and the final phase, cytokinesis, where the new cell is completely divided. The cell-division cycle is a vital process by which a single-celled fertilized egg develops into a mature organism, as well as the process by which hair, skin, blood cells, and some internal organs are renewed. After cell division, each of the daughter cells begin the interphase of a new cycle. Although the various stages of interphase are not usually morphologically distinguishable, each phase of the cell cycle has a distinct set of specialized biochemical processes that prepare the cell for initiation of cell division.ConferenceSeries through its Open Access Initiative is committed to make genuine and reliable contributions to the scientific community. ConferenceSeries hosts over 400 leading-edge peer reviewed Open Access journals and has organized over 300 scientific conferences all over the world. OMICS Publishing Group journals have over 3 million readers and the fame and success of the same can be attributed to the strong editorial board which contains over 30000 eminent personalities and the rapid, quality and quick review processing. ConferenceSeries Conferences make the perfect platform for global networking as it brings together renowned speakers and scientists across the globe to a most exciting and memorable scientific event filled with much enlightening interactive sessions, world class exhibitions and poster presentations.
Control of the cell cycle is necessary for a couple of reasons. First, if the cell cycle were not regulated, cells could constantly undergo cell division. While this may be beneficial to certain cells, on the whole constant reproduction without cause would be biologically wasteful. Second, internal regulation of the cell cycle is necessary to signal passage from one phase to the next at appropriate times. This regulation is not achieved through strict time constraints, but rather with feedback from the cell.Interphase: Interphase generally lasts at least 12 to 24 hours in mammalian tissue. During this period, the cell is constantly synthesizing RNA, producing protein and growing in size. By studying molecular events in cells, scientists have determined that interphase can be divided into 4 steps: Gap 0 (G0), Gap 1 (G1), S (synthesis) phase, Gap 2 (G2).Gap 0 (G0): There are times when a cell will leave the cycle and quit dividing. This may be a temporary resting period or more permanent. An example of the latter is a cell that has reached an end stage of development and will no longer divide (e.g. neuron).Gap 1 (G1): Cells increase in size in Gap 1, produce RNA and synthesize protein. An important cell cycle control mechanism activated during this period (G1 Checkpoint) ensures that everything is ready for DNA synthesis.S Phase: To produce two similar daughter cells, the complete DNA instructions in the cell must be duplicated. DNA replication occurs during this S (synthesis) phase.Gap 2 (G2): During the gap between DNA synthesis and mitosis, the cell will continue to grow and produce new proteins. At the end of this gap is another control checkpoint (G2 Checkpoint) to determine if the cell can now proceed to enter M (mitosis) and divide.Mitosis or M Phase: Cell growth and protein production stop at this stage in the cell cycle. All of the cell's energy is focused on the complex and orderly division into two similar daughter cells. Mitosis is much shorter than interphase, lasting perhaps only one to two hours. As in both G1 and G2, there is a Checkpoint in the middle of mitosis (Metaphase Checkpoint) that ensures the cell is ready to complete cell division. Actual stages of mitosis can be viewed at Animal Cell Mitosis. Upcoming Conferences/Symposium related to cell cycle and their role is one in number.
•“Cell cycle: bridging scales in cell division", 11-15 October, 2014, Roscoff (Brittany),France
•“EMBO Workshop—Cell cycle”04-07 September 2015, Budapest, Hungary
Relevant Associations and Societies
Canadian Cancer Society
British Society of Cell Biology
American Cancer Society
The Society of Experimental Biology
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This page was last updated on August 9, 2020