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As per available reports about 12 Relevant Journals, 16 Conferences, 23 National Symposiums are presently dedicated exclusively to Diabetes and about 1067 open acess articles are being published on breathing disorder.
Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. If you can't control your diabetes with wise food choices and physical activity, you may need diabetes medicines. The kind of medicine you take depends on your type of diabetes, your schedule, and your other health conditions. With type 1 diabetes, your pancreas does not make insulin. Insulin is a hormone that helps glucose get into your cells to give them energy. Without insulin, too much glucose stays in your blood. If you have type 1 diabetes, you would require insulin intake from time to time. Type 2 diabetes the most common type, can start when the body doesn't use insulin as it should. If your body can't keep up with the need for insulin, you may need to take pills. Along with meal planning and physical activity, diabetes pills help people with type 2 diabetes or gestational diabetes keep their blood glucose levels on target. Several kinds of pills are available. Each works in a different way. Many people take two or three kinds of pills. Some people take combination pills. Combination pills contain two kinds of diabetes medicine in one tablet. Some people take pills and insulin.
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Scope and Importance
Once diagnosed with diabetes, the patients along with their healthcare professionals work together to develop a treatment plan to help achieve blood glucose levels within a target range. The programs might include nutrition, exercise along with a combination of medications which provide you with the knowledge and skills to understand the key aspects of treatment plan including blood glucose monitoring and medication therapy. A good knowledge of your health programme helps you to prevent any complications while your treatment and managing high and low blood glucose.
Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. If you can't control your diabetes with wise food choices and physical activity, you may need diabetes medicines. The kind of medicine you take depends on your type of diabetes, your schedule, and your other health conditions.
With type 1 diabetes, your pancreas does not make insulin. Insulin is a hormone that helps glucose gets into your cells to give them energy. Without insulin, too much glucose stays in your blood. If you have type 1 diabetes, you will need to take insulin.
Type 2 diabetes, the most common type, can start when the body doesn't use insulin as it should. If your body can't keep up with the need for insulin, you may need to take pills. Along with meal planning and physical activity, diabetes pills help people with type 2 diabetes or gestational diabetes keep their blood glucose levels on target. Several kinds of pills are available. Each works in a different way. Many people take two or three kinds of pills. Some people take combination pills. Combination pills contain two kinds of diabetes medicine in one tablet. Some people take pills and insulin.
Drug treatment for Type 1 diabetes:
Insulin injected subcutaneously is the first-line treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM). The different types of insulin vary with respect to onset and duration of action. Short-, intermediate-, and long-acting insulins are available. Short-acting and rapid-acting insulins are the only types that can be administered intravenously (IV). Human insulin currently is the only species of insulin available in the United States; it is less antigenic than the previously used animal-derived varieties.
Rapid-acting insulins are used whenever a rapid onset and short duration are appropriate (eg, before meals or when the blood glucose level exceeds target and a correction dose is needed). Rapid-acting insulins are associated with less hypoglycemia than regular insulin.
Currently, short-acting insulins are less commonly used than the rapid-acting insulins in patients with type 1 DM. They are used when a slightly slower onset of action or a greater duration of action is desired.
Intermediate-acting insulins have a relatively slow onset of action and a relatively long duration of action. They are usually combined with faster-acting insulins to maximize the benefits of a single injection.
Long-acting insulin has a very long duration of action and, when combined with faster-acting insulin’s, provides better glucose control for some patients. In patients with type 1 DM, they must be used in conjunction with rapid-acting or short-acting insulin given before meals.
Premixed insulins contain a fixed ratio of rapid-acting insulin with longer-acting insulin, which can restrict their use. Premixed insulin is usually not recommended in type 1 DM patients, because of their need for frequent adjustments of pre-meal insulin doses
Types of Diabetes Pills for Type 2 Diabetes
Diabetes pills are grouped in categories. There are several categories of diabetes pills. Each works differently.
Sulfonylureas: These diabetes pills lower blood sugar by causing the pancreas to release more insulin. The first drugs of this type that were developed -- Dymelor (acetohexamide), Diabinese (chlorpropamide), Orinase (tolbutamide), and Tolinase (tolazamide) -- are not as widely used since they tend to be less potent and shorter-acting drugs than the newer sulfonylureas. They include Glucotrol (glipizide), Glucotrol XL (extended release), DiaBeta (glyburide), Micronase (glyburide), Glynase PresTab (glyburide), and Amaryl (glimepiride). These drugs can cause a decrease in the hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) of up to 1%-2%.
Biguanides: These diabetes pills improve insulin's ability to move sugar into cells especially into the muscle cells. They also prevent the liver from releasing stored sugar. Biguanides should not be used in people who have kidney damage or heart failure because of the risk of precipitating a severe build-up of acid (called lactic acidosis) in these patients. Biguanides can decrease the HbA1c 1%-2%. An example includes metformin (Glucophage, Glucophage XR, Riomet, Fortamet, and Glumetza).
Thiazolidinediones: These diabetes pills improve insulin's effectiveness in muscle and in fat tissue. They lower the amount of sugar released by the liver and make fat cells more sensitive to the effects of insulin. Actos (pioglitazone) and Avandia (rosiglitazone) are the two drugs of this class. A decrease in the HbA1c of 1%-2% can be seen with this class of oral diabetes medications. These drugs may take a few weeks before they have an effect in lowering blood sugar. All patients using Avandia must review and fully understand the risks to the heart.
Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors: including Precose (acarbose) and Glyset (miglitol). These drugs block enzymes that help digest starches, slowing the rise in blood sugar. These diabetes pills may cause diarrhea or gas. They can lower hemoglobin A1c by 0.5%-1%.
Meglitinides: including Prandin (repaglinide) and Starlix (nateglinide). These diabetes medicines lower blood sugar by stimulating the pancreas to release more insulin. The effects of these diabetes pills depend on the level of glucose. They are said to be glucose dependent. High sugars make this class of diabetes medicines release insulin. This is unlike the sulfonylureas that cause an increase in insulin release, regardless of glucose levels, and can lead to hypoglycemia.
Combination Therapy: There are several combination diabetes pills that combine two medications into one tablet. One example of this is Glucovance, which combines glyburide (a sulfonylurea) and metformin. Others include Metaglip, which combines glipizide (a sulfonylurea) and metformin, and Avandamet, which uses both metformin and rosiglitazone (Avandia) in one pill. Kazano (alogliptin and metformin) and Oseni (alogliptin plus pioglitazone) are other examples.
Studies have shown that some diabetes pills may help prevent diabetes and diabetes-related complications. Both metformin and Precose have been shown to reduce a person's risk of developing type 2 diabetes, particularly when combined with lifestyle changes such as a proper diet and regular exercise program. Actos has been shown to reduce the risk of heart attack, stroke, and premature death in those with type 2 diabetes. Researchers continue to look into the preventative benefits of other medications.
Side Effects of Oral Diabetes Drugs
Side effects of first- and second-generation sulfonylureas include:
Side effects for biguanide medications include:
Side effects for thiazolidinediones are rare but may include:
Side effects for alpha-glucosidase inhibitors include:
Stomach upset (gas, diarrhea, nausea, cramps)
Side effects of meglitinides include:
Side effects of Invokana (canagliflozin, the SGLT2 inhibitor)
In a grim reminder of the rise of lifestyle diseases, particularly diabetes, an anti-diabetic molecule has for the first time become the largest-selling formulation in the domestic pharma retail market. Widely-prescribed anti-diabetic drugs (glimepiride plus metformin) clocked sales of Rs 105 crore, surpassing the anti-infective therapy at Rs 103 crore, in the pharma retail market valued at Rs 6,636 crore, in May this year. Analysts tracking the market said the anti-infective therapy had always been ranked on top. The primary reason for the anti-diabetic molecule taking the lead is because of its faster growth, as well as the anti-infective molecule coming under price control.
Companies related to Diabetes Medicine
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This page was last updated on April 10, 2020