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OMICS International through its Open Access Initiative is committed to make genuine and reliable contributions to the scientific community. OMICS International hosted 244 open access articles Open Access articles, 863 Scientific conference Proceedings , 159 national symposiums and 380 speakers on Key word Climatology in Global Events page. Global Events of Conference series make the perfect platform for global networking as it brings together renowned speakers and scientists across the globe to a most exciting and memorable scientific event filled with much enlightening interactive sessions, world class exhibitions of OMICS International Conferences
Climate is expected. Weather what will get. Climatology is a Greek word "place, zone" is the study of climate, scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time. This modern field of study is regarded as a branch of the atmospheric sciences and a subfield of physical geography, which is one of the Earth sciences. Climatology now includes aspects of oceanography and biogeochemistry. Basic knowledge of climate can be used within shorter term weather forecasting using analog techniques such as the El Niño – Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the Northern Annular Mode (NAM) which is also known as the Arctic oscillation (AO), the Northern Pacific (NP) Index, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO). Climate models are used for a variety of purposes from study of the dynamics of the weather and climate system to projections of future climate. A climatologist attempts to discover and explain the impacts of climate so that society can plan its activities, design its buildings and infrastructure, and anticipate the effects of adverse conditions. Although climate is not weather, it is defined by the same terms, such as temperature, precipitation, wind, and solar radiation.
Climatology is approached in a variety of ways. Paleoclimatology seeks to reconstruct past climates by examining records such as ice cores and tree rings (dendroclimatology). Paleotempestology uses these same records to help determine hurricane frequency over millennia. The study of contemporary climates incorporates meteorological data accumulated over many years, such as records of rainfall, temperature and atmospheric composition. Knowledge of the atmosphere and its dynamics is also embodied in models, either statistical or mathematical, which help by integrating different observations and testing how they fit together. Modeling is used for understanding past, present and potential future climates. Historical climatology is the study of climate as related to human history and thus focuses only on the last few thousand years.
Climate research is made difficult by the large scale, long time periods, and complex processes which govern climate. Climate is governed by physical laws which can be expressed as differential equations. These equations are coupled and nonlinear, so that approximate solutions are obtained by using numerical methods to create global climate models. Climate is sometimes modeled as a stochastic process but this is generally accepted as an approximation to processes that are otherwise too complicated to analyze.
Climate models use quantitative methods to simulate the interactions of the atmosphere, oceans, land surface, and ice. They are used for a variety of purposes from study of the dynamics of the weather and climate system to projections of future climate. All climate models balance, or very nearly balance, incoming energy as short wave (including visible) electromagnetic radiation to the earth with outgoing energy as long wave (infrared) electromagnetic radiation from the earth. Any unbalance results in a change in the average temperature of the earth.
The most talked-about models of recent years have been those relating temperature to emissions of carbon dioxide (see greenhouse gas). These models predict an upward trend in the surface temperature record, as well as a more rapid increase in temperature at higher latitudes.
Models can range from relatively simple to quite complex:
• A simple radiant heat transfer model that treats the earth as a single point and averages outgoing energy
• This can be expanded vertically (radiative-convective models), or horizontally
• Finally, (coupled) atmosphere–ocean–sea ice global climate models discretise and solve the full equations for mass and energy transfer and radiant exchange
OMICS International Organizes 1000+ Global Events Every Year across USA, Europe & Asia with support from 1000 more scientific societies and Publishes 700+ Open access journals which contains over 100000 eminent personalities, reputed scientists as editorial board and organizing committee members. The conference series website will provide you list and details about the conference organize worldwide.
• International Society of Medical Hydrology and Climatology
• American Meteorological Society
• Climate Change - American Meteorological Society.
• Climate Change: Evidence & Causes | Royal Society.
• Climate Change - Geological Society of America.
• Climate Change Campaign | National Audubon Society.
• The Paris Research Consortium Climate-Environment-Society.
• The Society of Environmental Journalists.
• Institute of Global Environment and Society.
• British Ecological Society.
• Civil society and the Climate Change Process.
• Global Climate Change society.
• The Geological Society.
Companies which are responsible for climate change:
• Former USSR (oil, gas, coal)
• Poland (coal)Fuel & Cement
• Coal india.
• British coal.
• National Iranian Oil Company.
• Saudi Aramco -Fuel & Cement.
• China coal and cement.
• ChevronTexaco. Fuel & Cement.
• Royal Dutch Shell. Methane Leaks.
• ExxonMobil. Methane Leaks
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This page was last updated on 08th Sep, 2015
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