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Brain abscess is a focal, intracerebral infection that begins. Metastatic seeding of the brain from distant extra cranial as a localized area of celebrities and develops into a collection sources remains an important route of infection; the microbial of pus surrounded by a well-vascularized capsule.Brain abscess is caused by intracranial inflammation with subsequent abscess formation. The most frequent intracranial locations (in descending order of frequency) are frontal-temporal, frontal-parietal, partial, cerebellar, and occipital lobes.
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Before the emergence of the AIDS pandemic, brain abscesses were estimated to account for 1 per 10,000 hospital admissions, or 1500-2500 cases annually. The prevalence of brain abscess in patients with AIDS is higher, so the overall rate has thus increased. The infection tends to occur in young men, although infection can occur in all age groups; the male-to-female ratio varies between 2: 1 and 3: 1. In some series, children account for up to 25% of cases. Abscess formation can also develop following blood-borne spread from a remote site, in patients with cyanotic congenital heart disease, endocarditis, and dental caries. In at least 20% of cases no source can be identified. In one South African study precipitating events were as follows: oto-rhino infection (38%), trauma (37%), pulmonary infection (7%) and cryptogenic (4%).
Brain abscesses commonly occur when bacteria or fungi infect part of the brain. Swelling and irritation (inflammation) develop in response to this infection. White blood cells, live and dead bacteria, Infected brain cells, and fungi collect in an area of the brain and Tissue forms around this area and creates a mass.
While this immune response can protect the brain by isolating the infection it can also do more harm as compared to good and the brain swells. As the skull cannot expand so the mass may put pressure on delicate brain tissue. Even Infected material can block the blood vessels of the brain.
The germs that cause a brain abscess can reach the brain through the blood. Source of the infection is often not found. The most common source is a lung infection. However, less often a heart infection is the cause. Germs may also travel from a nearby infected area (for example, an ear infection or a tooth abscess) or enter the body during an injury (such as a gun or knife wound) or neurosurgery.
The following raise your risk of a brain abscess:
• A weakened immune system (such as in AIDS patients)
• Chronic disease, such as cancer
• Drugs that suppress the immune system (corticosteroids or chemotherapy)
• Right-to-left heart shunts, usually the result of congenital heart disease
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List of Related Societies:
The Infectious Diseases Society of America .
Brain Injury association of America
The brain & behavior research foundation
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Technavio's analysts forecast the infectious diseases market in US to grow at a CAGR of 3.37% over the period 2014-2019. Nosocomial infections affect approximately 2 million patients in the United States each year, increasing overall patient care costs by an estimated $4.5 to $5.7 billion.
A brain abscess is a pus-filled swelling in the brain caused by an infection. It is a rare and life-threatening condition. A brain abscess usually occurs when bacteria or fungi enter the brain tissue. A brain abscess is regarded as a medical emergency. Because the swelling caused by the abscess can disrupt the blood and oxygen supply to the brain. There is also a risk that the abscess may burst (rupture). If left untreated, a brain abscess can cause permanent brain damage and can be fatal. Brain abscesses tend to only be a significant problem in parts of the world where access to antibiotics is limited.
Because of advances in diagnostic and surgical techniques as the outlook for people with brain abscesses has improved dramatically. Around 70% of people will make a full recovery.
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This page was last updated on 11th Sep, 2015
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