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In physics, tension describes the pulling force exerted by each end of a string, cable, chain, or similar one-dimensional continuous object, or by each end of a rod, truss member, or similar three dimensional objects. At the atomic level, tension is produced when atoms or molecules are pulled apart from each other and gain electromagnetic potential energy. Each end of a string or rod under tension will pull on the object it is attached to, to restore the string/rod to its relaxed length. Tension is the opposite of compression. Although not physics terms, slackening and tensioning are used when talking about fencing, for example. In physics, although tension is not a force, it does have the units of force and can be measured in newton’s (or sometimes pounds-force). The ends of a string or other object under tension will exert forces on the objects to which the string or rod is connected, in the direction of the string at the point of attachment. These forces due to tension are often called "tension forces." There are two basic possibilities for systems of objects held by strings: either acceleration is zero and the system is therefore in equilibrium, or there is acceleration and therefore a net force is present. A tension headache (renamed a tension-type headache by the International Headache Society in 1988) is the most common type of primary headache. The pain can radiate from the lower back of the head, the neck, eyes, or other muscle groups in the body. Tension-type headaches account for nearly 90% of all headaches.
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Episodic tension-type headaches generally respond well to over-the-counter analgesics such as ibuprofen, paracetamol/acetaminophen, and aspirin. Analgesic/sedative combinations are widely used (e.g., analgesic/antihistamine combinations like Syndol, Mersyndol and Percogesic, analgesic/barbiturate combinations such as Fiorinal). Frequent use of analgesics may, however, lead to medication overuse headache. The first-line treatment for chronic tension type headache is amitriptyline, whereas mirtazapine and venlafaxine are second-line treatment options.Other medication options include topiramate and sodium valproate (as prophylaxis).Biofeedback techniques may also help. Botulinum toxin is a treatment trialled by some people with tension-type headache, though results are varied.
Applying a case-mix formula based on transected extremity nerve injuries within the three tiered gap-length level categories to the estimated number of applicable procedures per year, the U.S. market size was found to be $1.32 to $1.93 billion dollars with a mean of $1.68 billion dollars per year.
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