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As per available reports on smart fluid 5 Relevant journals, 10 Conference proceedings (i.e. Smart Materials, Wireless Communication, Industrial Engineering, Condensed Matter Physics, Electronics) are presently dedicated to smart fluid and about 1 Open access articles are being published and 1 National Symposiums.
Liquid suspension of metals or zeolites which solidifies when electric current is applied to it, and becomes fluid again when the current is removed. Smart fluid also called electro rheological fluid.
A smart fluid is one whose flow properties can be changed through application of a low-power control signal. By using such a fluid in a suitable damper, the characteristics of the damper can be rapidly altered through the application of a low-power control signal, whilst retaining the essential simplicity of a passive damper.
There are two main classes of smart fluid: electro rheological (ER) and magneto rheological (MR). ER fluids generally consist of semi-conducting particles suspended in dielectric oil, whereas MR fluids use magnetiseable particles suspended in a non-magnetiseable carrier liquid. In both cases the flow mechanism is the same: excitation of the fluid by the appropriate field (electric or magnetic, respectively) causes polarization and subsequent alignment of the particles suspended within the liquid. The resulting chain structure is held in place by the applied field, and hence resists fluid flow. The resulting behavior is analogous to the class of fluids known as Bingham plastics – non-Newtonian fluids capable of developing a yield stress. For smart fluids, this yield stress is a function of the applied electric or magnetic field. However, once this yield stress is exceeded, the behavior of the smart fluid deviates from that of a Bingham plastic. This is attributable to a breakdown of the chains of particles under the forces of the fluid flow, and results in a shear-stress / shear-rate characteristic that is highly non-linear. When used in a damping device, the result is a damper whose force / velocity characteristic is non-linear, but can be changed by way of the applied electric or magnetic field.
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Scope and Importance:
Another major type of smart fluid are electrorheological or ER fluids, whose resistance to flow can be quickly and dramatically altered by an applied electric field (note, the yield stress point is altered rather than the viscosity). Besides fast acting clutches, brakes, shock absorbers and hydraulic valves, other, more esoteric, applications such as bulletproof vests have been proposed for these fluids.
Other smart fluids change their surface tension in the presence of an electric field. This has been used to produce very small controllable lenses: a drop of this fluid, captured in a small cylinder and surrounded by oil, serves as a lens whose shape can be changed by applying an electric field.
BCC (www.bccresearch.com) reveals in its new report on smart materials, the global market was valued at $23.6 billion in 2013 and almost $26 billion in 2014. This is anticipated to reach over $42.2 billion in 2019 at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 10.2% between 2014 and 2019. Motors and actuators make up the largest application segment of the market, with sales of nearly $16.8 billion (70.8% of the market) in 2013, increasing to $30.2 billion (nearly 71.6% of the market) by 2019.
Smart materials are a class of materials that respond dynamically to electrical, thermal, chemical, magnetic or other stimuli from the environment. These materials are incorporated in a growing range of products, enabling these products to alter their characteristics or otherwise respond to external stimuli.
The Asia-Pacific region accounted for the largest production of smart materials in 2013, followed by the U.S. and Europe. However, European production is projected to grow somewhat more slowly than the global average (i.e., at a CAGR of 9.9%). The U.S. share of global smart materials production is projected to increase from 28.2% in 2013 to 29% in 2019.
Phase-change materials (PCMs) have an important potential role to play in energy storage, particularly storage of heat produced by parabolic trough solar collectors. Various smart materials (e.g., piezoelectrics and electrostrictive polymers) can be used to “harvest” energy from the vibrations produced by ordinary activities such as walking. Shape memory alloy actuators have also been adapted to opening and closing greenhouse windows.
“Monitoring the structural integrity of bridges, dams, offshore oil-drilling towers and other structures is another application that is attracting attention," says BCC Research analyst Andrew McWilliams. “Embedding sensors made from smart materials within structures to monitor stress and damage can reduce maintenance costs and increase lifespan. They are already used in more than 40 bridges worldwide.”
Smart Materials and Their Applications: Technologies and Global Markets analyzes the principal end-user segment for each type of smart material (including commercial, industrial, medical, research and military) and estimates the current and projected worldwide market for each type of smart material and application through 2019.
February 29-March 02, 2016-Philadelphia, USA
September 21-23, 2015-Baltimore, USA
July 25-27, 2016-Berlin, Germany
November 16-18, 2015-Dubai, UAE
July 25-26, 2016-Berlin, Germany
October 27-29, 2016 Chicago, USA
November 03-05, 2015-Valencia, Spain
October 05-07, 2015-San Francisco, USA
November 14-16, 2016-Atlanta, USA
10. 5th Nanotek Conference
November 16-18, 2015-San Antonio, USA
July 11-12, 2016-Cologne, Germany
November 16-18, 2015-San Antonio, USA
November 30-December 02, 2015-San Antonio, USA
July 28-30, 2016-Berlin, Germany
November 16-18, 2015-Dubai, UAE
September 14-16, 2015-Florida, USA
17. BIT's 2nd World Congress of Smart Materials-Singapore
18. SECTOR 2nd Smart Materials and Surfaces-Korea
19. ASME Conference on Smart Materials-USA
20. SPIE Smart Structures/NDE 2016- USA
21. CIMTEC 5th International Conference Smart and Multifunctional Materials Structures & Systems-Italy
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This page was last updated on 15th Sep, 2015
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