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Proteomics is the study of proteins, mainly their structures and functions. The proteome is the entire set of proteins, produced or modified by an organism or system. This varies with time and distinct requirements, or stresses, that a cell or organism undergoes. Structural proteomics includes the analysis of protein structures at large-scale. It compares protein structures and helps identify functions of newly discovered genes. The structural analysis also helps to understand that where drugs bind to proteins and also show where proteins interact with each other. This understanding is achieved using different technologies such as X-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy.
Scope & Importance
While there are only 20 amino acids, they combine in different ways to form tens of thousands of proteins, each with a unique, genetically defined sequence that determines the protein’s specific shape and function. In addition, each protein can undergo a variety of post-translational modifications that further influence its shape and function. Researchers and scientists are working on developing a map of the human proteome – much like that of the human genome – that identifies novel protein families, protein interactions and signaling pathway.
Expression proteomics includes the analysis of protein expression at larger scale. It helps identify main proteins in a particular sample, and those proteins differentially expressed in related samples. There are technologies such as 2D-PAGE and Mass spectrometry that are used in expression proteomics. Proteomics has recently come into the act as a promising force to transform biology and medicine. It is becoming increasingly apparent that changes in mRNA expression correlate poorly with protein expression changes. Proteins change enormously in patterns of expressions across developmental and physiological responses.
Proteomics has steadily gained momentum over the past decade with the evolution of several approaches. Few of these are new and others build on traditional methods. Mass spectrometry-based methods and micro arrays are the most common technologies for large-scale study of proteins.
There are many advances in this proteomics technology, particularly in the field of molecular biology. New proteomics and genomics technologies and inventions could be used for disease specific biomarker discovery and to monitor patient response to the therapy. Proteomics may also help to establish new, molecular classification of the disease. Applying genomic and proteomic methods to body fluids (serum, cerebrospinal fluid, urine, etc.) and tissue extracts would place valuable objective analytical power in the hands of the clinician however validation of those methods is an important issue. The rapid expansion of the diagnostic tools based on developments in proteomic and genomic technologies can be fundamental for the development of personalized medicine.
Market Analysis :
Markets for proteomic technologies are analyzed for the year 2014 and are projected to years 2019 and 2024. The largest expansion will be in bioinformatics and protein biochip technologies. Important areas of application are cancer and neurological disorders. The number of companies involved in proteomics has increased remarkably during the past few years. More than 300 companies have been identified to be involved in proteomics and 223 of these are profiled in the report with 456 collaborations. Proteomics Market 2015-2019 which is Increase in Demand for Personalized Medicines with Agilent Technologies, Danaher & Thermo Fischer Scientific Dominating. The Global Proteomics market to grow at a CAGR of 8.39% over the period 2014-2019.
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