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Prodrugs are a class of drug derivatives that are administered in an inactive or less than fully active form, and are then converted to its active form through a normal metabolic process, such as hydrolysis of an ester form of the drug. A prodrug is a precursor chemical compound of a drug. Prodrugs are often designed to improve bioavailability when a drug itself is poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. This reduces adverse or unintended effects of a drug, especially important in treatments like chemotherapy, which can have severe unintended and undesirable side effects.
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Currently, much effort is made in the development of prodrugs that are activated by organ- or tumor-selective human enzymes, and because of the existing limitations of ADEPT, GDEPT, and VDEPT approaches. To date, many enzymes have been evaluated for their ability to activate prodrugs of antitumor agents. This review provides a comprehensive inventory of these enzymes regarding their tissue distribution and presence in tumor cells. The enzyme kinetic parameters of the enzymes and their respective prodrugs will also be presented to classify each enzyme-prodrug system as a slow-release or organ-/tumor-specific strategy. Numerous prodrugs have been developed for the delivery of higher concentrations of a drug to target cells than could otherwise be obtained by the administration of the drug itself. Although this goal is conceptually simple, the execution appears to be very complex. Nevertheless, several prodrugs are currently used to treat patients successfully. However, a general problem in designing prodrug strategies still concerns the minor biochemical differences between target and nontarget cells, often resulting in toxic side effects. More basic research is still needed to elucidate the phenotypic differences between target and nontarget cells
A drug is in the broadest of terms, a chemical substance that has known biological effects on humans or other animals. Foods are generally excluded from this definition, in spite of their physiological effects on animal species. In pharmacology, a drug is "a chemical substance used in the treatment, cure, prevention, or diagnosis of disease or used to otherwise enhance physical or mental well-being. “Drugs may be used for a limited duration, or on a regular basis for chronic disorders. Recreational drugs are chemical substances that affect the central nervous system, such as opioids or hallucinogens. Alcohol, nicotine, and caffeine are the most widely consumed psychotropic drugs worldwide.
A drug is any chemical you take that affects the way your body works. Alcohol, caffeine, aspirin and nicotine are all drugs. A drug must be able to pass from your body into your brain. Once inside your brain, drugs can change the messages your brain cells are sending to each other, and to the rest of your body. They do this by interfering with your brain's own chemical signals: neurotransmitters that transfer signals across synapses.
A drug is a chemical substance that can change how your body and mind work. Drugs of abuse are substances that people use to get high and change how they feel. They may be illegal drugs like pot, cocaine, or heroin. Or they may be legal for adults only, like alcohol and tobacco. Medicines that treat illness can also become drugs of abuse when people take them to get high not because they're sick and following their doctor's orders. People can even abuse cough or cold medicines from the store if they ignore the directions and take too much at one time.
The global revenue for advanced drug delivery systems is estimated to be $181.9 billion in 2013. In 2018, revenues are estimated to reach nearly $212.8 billion, demonstrating a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 3.2%.This report provides:- An overview of the global market for drug delivery systems, with a focus on routes of administration.- Analyses of market trends, with data from 2012, estimates for 2013, and projections of CAGRs through 2018.- Discussion of the current state, setbacks, innovations, and the future needs of the market.- Analyses of the regulatory environment and the technology involved, including the latest developments.
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