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As per available reports on Piezoelectric 12 Relevant journals, 58 Conference proceedings (i.e. Smart Materials, Wireless Communication, Industrial Engineering, Condensed Matter Physics, Electronics) are presently dedicated to Piezoelectric and about 19 Open access articles are being published and 5 National Symposiums.
Piezoelectric materials are among the insensible materials that are widespread around us. Consumer products, automotive electronics, medical technology, and industrial systems are but a few areas where piezoelectric components are indispensable. The ability of piezoelectric materials to convert mechanical energy into electric energy and vice versa makes their use abundant.
The piezoelectric effect occurs only in nonconductive materials. Piezoelectric materials can be divided in 2 main groups: crystals and ceramics. The most well-known piezoelectric material is quartz (SiO2). The piezoelectric effect is understood as the linear electromechanical interaction between the mechanical and the electrical state in crystalline materials with no inversion symmetry. The piezoelectric effect is a reversible process in that materials exhibiting the direct piezoelectric effect (the internal generation of electrical charge resulting from an applied mechanical force) also exhibit the reverse piezoelectric effect (the internal generation of a mechanical strain resulting from an applied electrical field). For example, lead zircon ate titan ate crystals will generate measurable piezoelectricity when their static structure is deformed by about 0.1% of the original dimension. Conversely, those same crystals will change about 0.1% of their static dimension when an external electric field is applied to the material. The inverse piezoelectric effect is used in production of ultrasonic sound waves.
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Scope and Importance:
The nature of the piezoelectric effect is closely related to the occurrence of electric dipole moments in solids. The latter may either be induced for ions on crystal lattice sites with asymmetric charge surroundings (as in BaTiO3 and PZTs) or may directly be carried by molecular groups (as in cane sugar). The dipole density or polarization (dimensionality [Cm/m3] ) may easily be calculated for crystals by summing up the dipole moments per volume of the crystallographic unit cell. As every dipole is a vector, the dipole density P is a vector field. Dipoles near each other tend to be aligned in regions called Weiss domains. The domains are usually randomly oriented, but can be aligned using the process of poling (not the same as magnetic poling), a process by which a strong electric field is applied across the material, usually at elevated temperatures. Not all piezoelectric materials can be poled.
Of decisive importance for the piezoelectric effect is the change of polarization P when applying a mechanical stress. This might either be caused by a re-configuration of the dipole-inducing surrounding or by re-orientation of molecular dipole moments under the influence of the external stress. Piezoelectricity may then manifest in a variation of the polarization strength, its direction or both, with the details depending on 1. the orientation of P within the crystal, 2. crystal symmetry and 3. the applied mechanical stress. The change in P appears as a variation of surface charge density upon the crystal faces, i.e. as a variation of the electric field extending between the faces caused by a change in dipole density in the bulk. For example, a 1 cm3 cube of quartz with 2 kN (500 lbf) of correctly applied force can produce a voltage of 12500 V.
Piezoelectric materials also show the opposite effect, called converse piezoelectric effect, where the application of an electrical field creates mechanical deformation in the crystal. Market Analysis
BCC (www.bccresearch.com) reveals in its new report on smart materials, the global market was valued at $23.6 billion in 2013 and almost $26 billion in 2014. This is anticipated to reach over $42.2 billion in 2019 at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 10.2% between 2014 and 2019. Motors and actuators make up the largest application segment of the market, with sales of nearly $16.8 billion (70.8% of the market) in 2013, increasing to $30.2 billion (nearly 71.6% of the market) by 2019.
Smart materials are a class of materials that respond dynamically to electrical, thermal, chemical, magnetic or other stimuli from the environment. These materials are incorporated in a growing range of products, enabling these products to alter their characteristics or otherwise respond to external stimuli.
The Asia-Pacific region accounted for the largest production of smart materials in 2013, followed by the U.S. and Europe. However, European production is projected to grow somewhat more slowly than the global average (i.e., at a CAGR of 9.9%). The U.S. share of global smart materials production is projected to increase from 28.2% in 2013 to 29% in 2019.
Phase-change materials (PCMs) have an important potential role to play in energy storage, particularly storage of heat produced by parabolic trough solar collectors. Various smart materials (e.g., piezoelectrics and electrostrictive polymers) can be used to “harvest” energy from the vibrations produced by ordinary activities such as walking. Shape memory alloy actuators have also been adapted to opening and closing greenhouse windows.
“Monitoring the structural integrity of bridges, dams, offshore oil-drilling towers and other structures is another application that is attracting attention," says BCC Research analyst Andrew McWilliams. “Embedding sensors made from smart materials within structures to monitor stress and damage can reduce maintenance costs and increase lifespan. They are already used in more than 40 bridges worldwide.”
Smart Materials and Their Applications: Technologies and Global Markets analyzes the principal end-user segment for each type of smart material (including commercial, industrial, medical, research and military) and estimates the current and projected worldwide market for each type of smart material and application through 2019.
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This page was last updated on 15th Sep, 2015
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