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ORF-1 product Rep in helps in prevention and diagnosis of Porcine circovirosis. PORCINE CIRCOVIRUS DISEASES (PCVD) PMWS (Postweaning multisystemic wasting sindrome) is one of the main causes of economical losses in swine production market. Diagnosis: detection of PCV2 in the lesions (Porcine circovirus type 2). PCV2 infection is wide spread in farms. Only pigs with a high PCV2 load develop the illness due to defective humoral response. Economical loss produced by PMWS (Post weaning multisystem wasting syndrome) is one of the most important issues that concern the pig industry. PMWS is considered a multifactorial disease in which development Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) is essential but not sufficient. Besides PMWS, PCV2 infection has been associated with some other pathological outcomes in pigs, collectively named porcine circovirus diseases (PCVD). PCV2 is a small non-enveloped virus belonging to Circoviridae family. Its genomic organization consists of two head to head arranged open reading frames (ORF1 and ORF2) separated by an origin of replication
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ORF2 encodes the structural capsid-forming protein Cap, the main immunogenic antigen of the virus. PCV2 infection is spread in farms all over the world. However, only a small percentage (4-30%) of infected animals develop PMWS. This fact has been related to the efficiency of host immune system humoral response. In order to fight against PCV2 infection spread in farms, it is essential to vaccinate the animals and to detect, as soon as possible, a PCV2 outbreak. Our preliminary results in overexpression in E. coli and purification of the protein encoded by ORF-1, Rep, are hereby showed. Use of Rep in vaccines against PCV2 would improve their efficacy and would allow developing test to differenciate vacunated from infected pigs (DIVA) .
Polycistronic transcripts are considered rare in the human genome. Initiation of translation of internal ORFs of eukaryotic genes has been shown to use either leaky scanning or highly structured IRES regions to access initiation codons. Studies on mammalian viruses identified a mechanism of coupled translation termination–reinitiation that allows translation of an additional ORF. Here, the ribosome terminating translation of ORF-1 translocates upstream to reinitiate translation of ORF-2. We have devised an algorithm to identify mRNAs in the human transcriptome in which the major ORF-1 overlaps a second ORF capable of encoding a product of at least 50 aa in length. This identified 4368 transcripts representing 2214 genes.
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