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Mycobacterium tuberculosis(MTB) is a pathogenic bacterial species in the family Mycobacteriaceae and the causative agent of most cases of tuberculosis (TB). First discovered in 1882 by Robert Koch, M. tuberculosis has an unusual, waxy coating on its cell surface (primarily due to the presence of mycolic acid), which makes the cells impervious to Gram staining. The Ziehl-Neelsen stain, or acid-fast stain, is used instead. The physiology of M. tuberculosis is highly aerobic and requires high levels of oxygen. Primarily a pathogen of the mammalian respiratory system, MTB infects the lungs.
The most frequently used diagnostic methods for TB are the tuberculin skin test, acid-fast stain, and chest radiographs.
M. tuberculosis requires oxygen to grow. It does not retain any bacteriological stain due to high lipid content in its wall, hence Ziehl-Neelsen staining, or acid-fast staining, is used. Despite this, it is considered a Gram-positive bacteria. While mycobacteria do not seem to fit the Gram-positive category from an empirical standpoint (i.e., they do not retain the crystal violet stain), they are classified as acid-fast Gram-positive bacteria due to their lack of an outer cell membrane.
M. tuberculosis divides every 15–20 hours, which is extremely slow compared to other bacteria, which tend to have division times measured in minutes (Escherichia coli can divide roughly every 20 minutes). It is a small bacillus that can withstand weak disinfectants and can survive in a dry state for weeks. Its unusual cell wall, rich in lipids (e.g., mycolic acid), is likely responsible for this resistance and is a key virulence factor. When in the lungs, M. tuberculosis is taken up by alveolar macrophages, but they are unable to digest and eradicate the bacterium. Its cell wall prevents the fusion of the phagosome with the lysosome, which contains a host of anti-mycobacterial factors. Specifically, M. tuberculosis blocks the bridging molecule, early endosomal autoantigen 1 (EEA1); however, this blockade does not prevent fusion of vesicles filled with nutrients. Consequently, the bacteria multiply unchecked within the macrophage. The bacteria also carry the UreC gene, which prevents acidification of the phagosome. In addition, production of the diterpene Isotuberculosinol prevents maturation of the phagosome. The bacteria also evade macrophage-killing by neutralizing reactive nitrogen intermediates. The ability to construct M. tuberculosis mutants and test individual gene products for specific functions has significantly advanced our understanding of the pathogenesis and virulence factors of M. tuberculosis. Many secreted and exported proteins are known to be important in pathogenesis.
OMICS International Organizes 1000+ Global Events Every Year across USA, Europe & Asia with support from 1000 more scientific societies and Publishes 700+ Open access journals which contains over 100000 eminent personalities, reputed scientists as editorial board and organizing committee members. The conference series website will provide you list and details about the conference organize worldwide.
After the success of Clinical Microbiology-2012, Clinical Microbiology-2013 and with the tremendous response of Clinical Microbiology-2014, OMICS Group International is glad to announce 4th International Conference on Clinical Microbiology & Microbial Genomics (Clinical Microbiology-2015) during October 05-07, 2015 at Philadelphia, USA.
Scope and Importance
Clinical Microbiology Conference provides the scope for opportunities to learn progressed by international scientists and academicians. To achieve the goals of Microbiologist, antimicrobials act on different but interconnected parts of the immune system. The ability to construct M. tuberculosis mutants and test individual gene products for specific functions has significantly advanced the understanding of the pathogenesis and virulence factors of M. tuberculosis. Many secreted and exported proteins are known to be important in pathogenesis. Autolysin is a virulence factor of the pathogenic bacterium Aero monas hydrophilic. Resistant strains of mycobacterium tuberculosis have developed resistance to more than one TB drug, due to mutations in their genes.
The market for breathing disorder diagnostics and therapeutics is expected to grow at a significant CAGR during the forecast period from 2014 to 2020 owing to increasing incidences of respiratory disorders across the globe. The global COPD market is estimated to currently be worth $11.3 billion, and is forecast to reach a value of $15.6 billion by 2019.
September 14-16, 2015 Baltimore, USA
October 26-28, 2015 Maryland, USA
September 14-16, 2015 Las Vegas, USA
August 25-27, 2016 Philadelphia, USA.
October 3-5, 2016 London UK
September 12-14, 2016 Berlin, Germany.
October 05-07, 2015 San Francisco, USA
1. MedLicense, India
2. Lishi Medicine Raw Material for Medicine Company Wholesale Department, China
3. Terada Cardiovascular Department Internal Medicine, Japan
4. National Board of Medical Examiners, United States
5. Arizona Medical Board, USA
6. Department of Medicine-Cardiology
7. Internal Medicine Associates, USA
8. Rocky Mountain Miracles, USA
9. McGuffys News Medicine Hat, Canada
10.Alberta Thermography & Women's Holistic, Canada
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This page was last updated on 12th Sep, 2015
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