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• Multiple drug resistance (MDR), multi-drug resistance or multiresistance is a condition enabling disease-causing microrganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites) to resist distinct antimicrobials, first and foremost antibiotics, but also antifungal drugs, antiviral medications, antiparasitic drugs, chemicals of a wide variety of structure and function targeted at eradicating the organism. Recognizing different degrees of MDR, the terms extensively-drug resistant (XDR) and pandrug-resistant (PDR) have been introduced. Various microorganisms have survived for thousands of years by their ability to adapt to antimicrobial agents. They do so via spontaneous mutation or by DNA transfer. This process enables some bacteria to oppose the action of certain antibiotics, rendering the antibiotics ineffective. These microorganisms employ several mechanisms in attaining multi-drug resistance. To limit the development of antimicrobial resistance, it has been suggested to:
• Use the appropriate antimicrobial for an infection; e.g. no antibiotics for viral infections.
• Identify the causative organism whenever possible.
• Select an antimicrobial which targets the specific organism, rather than relying on a broad-spectrum antimicrobial.
• Complete an appropriate duration of antimicrobial treatment (not too short and not too long)
• Use the correct dose for eradication; subtherapeutic dosing is associated with resistance, as demonstrated in food animals.
It has been argued that depending on the cultural context government can aid in educating the public on the importance of restrictive use of antibiotics for human clinical use, but unlike narcotics, there is no regulation of its use anywhere in the world at this time. Antibiotic use has been restricted or regulated for treating animals raised for human consumption with success, in Denmark for example.
OMICS Group International through its Open Access Initiative is committed to make genuine and reliable contributions to the scientific community. OMICS Group hosts over 350 leading-edge peer reviewed Open Access journalsand has organized over 100 scientific conferences all over the world. OMICS Publishing Group journals have over 3 million readers and the fame and success of the same can be attributed to the strong editorial board which contains over 30000 eminent personalities and the rapid, quality and quick review processing. OMICS Group Conferences make the perfect platform for global networking as it brings together renowned speakers and scientists across the globe to a most exciting and memorable scientific event filled with much enlightening interactive sessions, world class exhibitions and poster presentations.
Importance and scope:
Numerous pathogens that have become resistant to commonly used antibiotics have been described in various contexts, including drug-resistant methycillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Streptococcus pneumoneae, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Antibiotics-2015 is the premier event that brings together a unique and International mix of experts, researchers and decision makers from both academia and industry across the globe to exchange their knowledge, experience and research innovations. There is a renewed interest in the antibiotic sector, which is evident from the most recent patents and investments. Bacterial vaccines and new antibiotic classes are gaining a tremendous amount of attention with several product candidates in clinical development. This conference focuses exclusively on antibiotics, bacterial vaccines, and other emerging antibacterial.
New technologies and the outsourcing of antibiotics to lower-cost countries will slow the recent annual increases in expenditures in the U.S. to a 3.3% compound annual growth rate (CAGR) over the forecast period. Clinical trial spending in 2010 is an estimated $25 billion and is expected to reach $28.5 billion by 2014. The report provides an overview of clinical development phases, the regulatory issues involved, and the factors influencing clinical trial costs. An overview is provided of new technologies that will be affecting the clinical trial process in the near future.
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This page was last updated on 09th Sep, 2015
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