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Interest in the microbial biodegradation of pollutants has intensified in recent years as humanity strives to find sustainable ways to clean up contaminated environments. These bioremediation and biotransformation methods endeavour to harness the astonishing, naturally occurring ability of microbial xenobiotic metabolism to degrade, transform or accumulate a huge range of compounds including hydrocarbons (e.g. oil), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heterocyclic compounds (such as pyridine or quinoline), pharmaceutical substances, radionuclides and metals.
ConferenceSeries International is an amalgamation of Open Access productions and overall worldwide science meetings and occasions. Secured in the year 2007 with the sole point of making the data on Sciences and innovation Open Access'', OMICS Group distributes 400 online open get to academic diaries in all parts of Science, Engineering, Management and Technology diaries. ConferenceSeries has been instrumental in taking the learning on Science & engineering to the doorsteps of common men and ladies. Research Scholars, Students, Libraries, Educational Institutions, Research focuses and the business are principle stakeholders that profited incredibly from this information scattering. ConferenceSeries likewise arranges 300 International meetings yearly over the globe, where learning exchange happens through level headed discussions, round table examinations, blurb presentations, workshops, symposia and displays.
Major methodological breakthroughs in recent years have enabled detailed genomic, metagenomic, proteomic, bioinformatic and other high-throughput analyses of environmentally relevant microorganisms providing unprecedented insights into key biodegradative pathways and the ability of organisms to adapt to changing environmental conditions. Microorganisms gain energy by catalyzing energy-producing chemical reactions that involve breaking chemical reactions that involve breaking chemical bonds and transferring electrons away from the contaminant. The type of chemical reaction is called an oxidation-reduction reaction: the organic contaminant is oxidized, the technical term for losing electrons; correspondingly, the chemical that gains the electrons is reduced. The contaminant is called the electron donor, while the electron recipient is called the electron acceptor. The energy gained from these electron transfers is then "invested", along with some electrons and carbon from the contaminant, to produce more cells. These two materials — the electron donor and acceptor — are essential for cell growth and are comply called the primary substrates. Many microorganisms, like humans, use molecular oxygen (O2) as the electron acceptor. The process of destroying organic compounds with the aid of 02 is called aerobic respiration. In aerobic respiration, microbes use 02 to oxidize part of the carbon in the contaminants to carbon dioxide (C02), with the rest of the carbon used to produce new cell mass. In the process the 02 gets reduced, producing water. Thus, the major byproducts of aerobic respiration are carbon dioxide, water, and an increased population of microorganisms. Many microorganisms can exist without oxygen, using a process called anaerobic respiration. In anaerobic respiration, nitrate (NO3-), sulfate (SO42-), metals such as iron (Fe3+) and manganese (Mn4+), or even CO2 can play the role of oxygen, accepting electrons from the degraded contaminant. Thus, anaerobic respiration uses inorganic chemicals as electron acceptors. In addition to new cell matter, the byproducts of anaerobic respiration may include nitrogen gas (N2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), reduced forms of metals, and methane (CH4), depending on the electron acceptor. Petroleum hydrocarbons and their derivatives are naturally occurring chemicals that humans have exploited for a wide range of purposes, from fueling engines to manufacturing chemicals. The representative types of petroleum hydrocarbons and derivatives are gasoline, fuel, oil, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), creosote, ethers, alcohols, ketones, and esters. Each of these chemicals has a broad range of industrial applications. For example, PHAs are released when crude oil is refined and from the manufacture of petroleum products such as plastics. Creosote is used in wood preservatives. Ethers, esters, and ketones are components of chemicals ranging from perfumes, to anesthetics, to paints and lacquers, to insecticides.
Conferences in Omics-
World Congress and Expo on Applied Microbiology
Euro Global Summit and Expo on Food & Beverages
International Conference on Aquaculture & Fisheries
International Conference and Exhibition on Food Processing & Technology
International Congress and Expo on Biofuels & Bioenergy
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This page was last updated on 01st Nov, 2014
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