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Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure or arterial hypertension, is a chronic medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is elevated. Blood pressure is expressed by two measurements, the systolic and diastolic pressures, which are the maximum and minimum pressures, respectively, in the arterial system. Hypertension usually does not cause symptoms initially, but sustained hypertension over time is a major risk factor for hypertensive heart disease, coronary artery disease, stroke, aortic aneurysm, peripheral artery disease, and chronic kidney disease.
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Scope and Importance
According to the World Health Organization, disease attributable to hypertension is the No. 1 cause of mortality in the world. Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiac disease and stroke, with an increase in risk for these ailments with progressively higher blood pressures. High blood pressure is the second-leading cause of end-stage renal disease, and its presence increases the rate of progression of all kidney diseases. Because of this, hypertension will be a central theme at the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology meeting in Anaheim, with a session titled, “Hypertension: Treatment, Disparities and Molecular Mechanisms.”
Hypertension puts strain on the heart, leading to hypertensive heart disease and coronary artery disease if not treated. Hypertension is also a major risk factor for stroke, aneurysms of the arteries (e.g. aortic aneurysm), peripheral arterial disease and is a cause of chronic kidney disease. A moderately high arterial blood pressure is associated with a shortened life expectancy while mild elevation is not. Dietary and lifestyle changes can improve blood pressure control and decrease the risk of health complications, although drug treatment is still often necessary in people for whom lifestyle changes are not enough or not effective. Most people with high blood pressure have no signs or symptoms, even if blood pressure readings reach dangerously high levels.Although a few people with early-stage high blood pressure may have dull headaches, dizzy spells or a few more nosebleeds than normal, these signs and symptoms usually don't occur until high blood pressure has reached a severe or life-threatening stage.
Hypertension (HTN) or high blood pressure, sometimes called arterial hypertension, is a chronic medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is elevated. Blood pressure is summarized by two measurements, systolic and diastolic, which depend on whether the heart muscle is contracting (systole) or relaxed between beats (diastole). This equals the maximum and minimum pressure, respectively. Normal blood pressure at rest is within the range of 100–140mmHg systolic (top reading) and 60–90mmHg diastolic (bottom reading). High blood pressure is said to be present if it is often at or above 140/90 mmHg.
Hypertension is classified as either primary (essential) hypertension or secondary hypertension; about 90–95% of cases are categorized as "primary hypertension" which means high blood pressure with no obvious underlying medical cause. The remaining 5–10% of cases (secondary hypertension) are caused by other conditions that affect the kidneys, arteries, heart or endocrine system.
Treatments and drugs:
Thiazide diuretics : Diuretics, sometimes called water pills, are medications that act on your kidneys to help your body eliminate sodium and water, reducing blood volume. Thiazide diuretics are often the first, but not the only, choice in high blood pressure medications. If you're not taking a diuretic and your blood pressure remains high, talk to your doctor about adding one or replacing a drug you currently take with a diuretic. Diuretics or calcium channel blockers may work better for blacks than do angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors alone. Beta blockers, these medications reduce the workload on your heart and open your blood vessels, causing your heart to beat slower and with less force.
When prescribed alone, beta blockers don't work as well, especially in older adults, but may be effective when combined with other blood pressure medications.
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. These medications help relax blood vessels by blocking the formation of a natural chemical that narrows blood vessels. People with chronic kidney disease may benefit from ACE inhibitors as one of their medications. Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs). These medications help relax blood vessels by blocking the action, not the formation, of a natural chemical that narrows blood vessels. People with chronic kidney disease may benefit from ARBs as one of their medications.
The value of the hypertension market in the major developed markets amounted to an estimated $40.0 billion in 2013 and is expected to decline during the forecast period at a negative Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 0.9% to $37.6 billion in 2020, with growth expected from 2013 to 2017 at a CAGR of 2.6% and a decline thereafter. The initial growth will be due to the increased penetration of fixed-dose combination drugs (Amturnide, Exforge Tribenzor, Azor, Tekturna HCT, Edarbyclor, Twynsta, Benicar HCT, Micardis Plus, Tekamlo, Valturna), a rise in the prevalence population from 181 million to 190 million at a CAGR of 0.6%, and two new expected launches in the pipeline (azilsartan + amlodipine, and AHU377+ valsartan). However, due to the expiry of the exclusivity of major drugs both before and during the forecast period (Cozaar in 2010; Diovan, Avapro and Atacand in 2012; Exforge in 2014; Benicar in 2016; and Tekturna and Tekturna HCT in 2018), increased generic penetration and a low diagnosis rate, the market will decline from 2017.
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1. American Society of Hypertension
2. The World's Premier Blood Pressure Society
3. International Society of hypertension
4. The High Blood Pressure Research Council of Australia
5. European Society of Hypertension
6. British Hypertension Society
7. Arterial Hypertension European Society
8. Asian Pacific Society of Hypertension
9. Malaysian Society of Hypertension
10.Canadian Society of Hypertension
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This page was last updated on January 17, 2021