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As per available reports about 20 relevant journals, 15 Conferences, 25 workshops are presently dedicated exclusively to medicine dosages and about 1699 articles are being published on medicine dosages.
Medicine dosages refers to the amount of drug taken at one time to elicit pharmacological effect. The total daily dose is calculated from the dose and number of doses per day. Medicine dosages are related to Fluid Dispensing, Dispensing Pharmacy and Research Chemists, Labeling of dispensed medicines, Forms of Drug Delivery Systems, Patient Care Technology.
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Scope and Importance:
Drug Formulation is a process in Pharmaceutics. Formulation means compounding of single or combination of active ingredients, excipients like Fillers, Disintegrants, Lubricants, Glidants, and Binders etc., packed in a single pack to form a Pharmaceutical Drug. Formulation deals with Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient to Packaging of the finished product which means Analytical R & D, Formulation R & D, Blending, Drying, Punching or Filling, Packaging. Formulation may be in different dosage forms like Oral Dosage Forms, Parenteral Dosage Forms and Topical Dosage Forms. Pharmaceutical formulation is the development of a bioavailable, stable and optimal dosage form for a specific administration route.
Common routes of administration include orally, topically, rectal, inhalation and nasal. The dosage that gives the desired effect with fewer side effects is known as optimal dosage. Many factors are taken into consideration while deciding dose of a drug- it includes weight, age of the patient, kidney and liver function, sex and whether the patient smokes. Other medicines may also affect the drug dose. The instructions for the dosage are written on the doctor’s prescription and on the hospital chart, it is also written on the label of a prescribed medicine. The duration, therapeutic effects of medical treatment and strength of the health benefits of nutrients is determined by its dosage.
Dosage also determines the severity of adverse effects of toxins and treatments. The route through which a dose is exposed effects the outcome, some medications effect differently on whether they are ingested, injected, inhaled, taken transdermally etc. Calculating drug dosage for humans is mainly based on the doses used in clinical trials and animal studies. It is mainly based on weight or surface area. Bacteria, parasities and viruses have different dosage units. The unit is known as CFU or colony forming unit, it is proportionate to the number of organism present multiplied times the number able to reproduce on a culture medium. There are different measures used to describe toxic dosages based on its degree of effect on an organism.
In drug overdose large overdoses of certain medicines causes only fewer effects whereas smaller overdoses of other medications causes severe effects and in certain cases can lead to death.
China’s changing health-care environment is designed to extend basic health insurance to a larger portion of the population and give individuals greater access to products and services. Following this period of change, the pharmaceutical industry is expected to continue its expansion. According to IMS Health Inc., China is currently the third largest pharmaceutical market in the world, posting $67 billion in revenue in 2011. With an anticipated compound growth rate of 24 percent between 2010 and 2020, China is expected to be the second largest market by 2015. Currently, there are about 1,400 drug companies in China that are, collectively, able to produce more than 60 dosage forms and about 5,000 different types of medicines. The current Chinese market value of the dosage form medicines is worth about $50 B, accounting for about 5.7% of the global market value. Internally, aiming to transform the Chinese pharmaceutical industry, the Chinese government is encouraging the Chinese drug companies to upgrade their manufacturing facility and improve their product quality. It is therefore believed that the Chinese dosage form drug market will continue to grow in a fast pace. It is expected to likely experience a CAGR of about 25% in the next five years. Its market value could reach more than $150 B by 2015.
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This page was last updated on 14th Sep, 2015
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