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Lungs are the essential respiratory organs in many air-breathing animals, including most tetra pods, a few fish and a few snails. In mammals and the more complex life forms, the two lungs are located near the backbone on either side of the heart. Their principal function is to transport oxygen from the atmosphere into the bloodstream, and to release carbon dioxide from the bloodstream into the atmosphere. In humans, the trachea divides into the two main bronchi that enter the roots of the lungs. The bronchi continue to divide within the lung, and after multiple divisions, give rise to bronchioles. The bronchial tree continues branching until it reaches the level of terminal bronchioles, which lead to alveolar sacs. Alveolar sacs are made up of clusters of alveoli, like individual grapes within a bunch. The individual alveoli are tightly wrapped in blood vessels and it is here that gas exchange actually occurs.
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Scope & Importance
Human lungs are located in two cavities on either side of the heart. Though similar in appearance, the two are not identical. Both are separated into lobes by fissures, with three lobes on the right and two on the left. The lobes are further divided into segments and then into lobules, hexagonal divisions of the lungs that are the smallest subdivision visible to the naked eye. The medial border of the right lung is nearly vertical, while the left lung contains a cardiac notch. The cardiac notch is a concave impression molded to accommodate the shape of the heart.
Each lobe is surrounded by a pleural cavity, which consists of two pleurae. The parietal pleura lie against the rib cage, and the visceral pleura lies on the surface of the lungs. In between the pleura is pleural fluid. The pleural cavity helps to lubricate the lungs, as well as providing surface tension to keep the lung surface in contact with the rib cage.
The lungs are a pair of spongy, air-filled organs located on either side of the chest (thorax). The trachea (windpipe) conducts inhaled air into the lungs through its tubular branches, called bronchi. The bronchi then divide into smaller and smaller branches (bronchioles), finally becoming microscopic.
The bronchioles eventually end in clusters of microscopic air sacs called alveoli. In the alveoli, oxygen from the air is absorbed into the blood. Carbon dioxide, a waste product of metabolism, travels from the blood to the alveoli, where it can be exhaled. Between the alveoli is a thin layer of cells called the interstitium, which contains blood vessels and cells that help support the alvezoli.
The lungs are covered by a thin tissue layer called the pleura. The same kind of thin tissue lines the inside of the chest cavity -- also called pleura. A thin layer of fluid acts as a lubricant allowing the lungs to slip smoothly as they expand and contract with each breath.
Breathing in is called inhalation. For air to flow into the lungs there must be a difference in the air pressure in the lungs and the pressure outside. Air is made up of tiny particles including oxygen. If these particles are held together, in a bottle for example, they push on the sides of the bottle. This ‘push’ is what is known as pressure. If the size of the bottle and the amount of air in it stay the same, the pressure in the bottle will stay the same. But the pressure in the bottle can change. If the size of the bottle increases without allowing more air in, the pressure in the bottle goes down. This is because there are fewer particles inside than outside. If you then removed the lid, air would flow into the bottle. This would make the pressure on the inside the same as the outside. Omics International has published 9 open access articles, conducted 26 conference proceedings and 2 national symposiums.
The market for breathing disorder diagnostics and therapeutics is expected to grow at a significant CAGR during the forecast period from 2014 to 2020 owing to increasing incidences of respiratory disorders across the globe. The global COPD market is estimated to currently be worth $11.3 billion, and is forecast to reach a value of $15.6 billion by 2019.
In the United States (U.S.), more than 35 million people suffer from some form of respiratory disorder and 1 in 6 deaths are caused by chronic lung disease. According to the American Lung Association, the annual economic burden of lung disease in the U.S. is estimated at $154 billion, consisting of $95 billion in direct healthcare costs and $59 billion in indirect costs including lost work days.
During the forecast period covered by this report, the combined U.S. market for respiratory care products is projected to increase from $3.8 billion in 2013 to $5.4 billion in the year 2018. The segment that is expected to experience the greatest growth is represented by sales of sleep apnea management products with 8.3%, followed by airway management accessories with 6.2%, blood gas monitoring products with 5.7%, pulmonary function assessment products with 5.5%, and ventilator systems with 5.3%.
List of Best International Conferences
Respiratory Therapy Conference
Oct 3-5, 2016 Vancouver, Canada
2nd Influenza Conference
September 12-14, 2016 Berlin, Germany
4th Asia-Pacific Healthcare Conference
July 18-20, 2016 Brisbane, Australia
2nd Breast Cancer Conference
September 19-21, 2016 Phoenix, USA
2nd Infectious Diseases Conference
August 25-27, 2016 Philadelphia, USA
March 29-30, 2016 Valencia, Spain
2nd Innate Immunity Conference
July 21-22, 2016 Berlin, Germany
2nd Flu Conference
November 17-19, 2016 San Francisco, USA
6th Euro Virology Conference
March 10-12, 2016 Madrid, Spain
9th Drug Delivery Summit Conference
June 30-July 2, 2016 New Orleans, USA
3rd Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Conference
July 11-12, 2016 Brisbane, Australia
ELCC 2015 European Lung Cancer Conference
Geneva, Switzerland - 13 Apr - 16 Apr 2016
17th World Conference on Lung Cancer
December 4 - 7 2016 Vienna, Austira
15th World Conference on Lung Cancer
March 12, 2016 Sydney, Australia
The Union World Conference against Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases
December 2-6, 2015 Capetown, Africa
6th Latin American Conference on Lung Cancer
August 25 - 27 2016 Panama City, Panama
Relevant Society and Associations:
Cambridge Development Initiative
Cambridge Graduate Course in Medicine Society
Cambridge Romanian Society
Research Drones Society, Oxford
Midland Geotechnical Society – UK
Palaeontological Association – UK
The British Hospitality Association
National Housing Federation
Self-Storage Association UK
Lung Health UK
British Lung Foundation
British Thoracic Society
British Association for Lung Research
The Sarcoidosis charity
The Freeman Heart & Lung Transplant Association
British Snoring and Sleep Apnoea Association
Association of Respiratory Nurses (ARNS)
Association of charted Physiotherapists in respiratory care (ACPRC)
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This page was last updated on February 21, 2020