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As per available reports about 5 relevant Journals and 8 Conferences are presently dedicated exclusively to Hybrid Car and about 55 open-access articles and 30 conference proceedings are being published on Hybrid Car.
Hybrid Car is a vehicle that uses two or more distinct power sources to move the vehicle. The term most commonly refers to hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), which combine an internal combustion engine and one or more electric motors. Hybrid Car incorporate concepts from Hybrid, Plug-in Hybrid and Electric Vehicles, Aerodynamics, Manufacturing Engineering, Smart Grid Technologies, Renewable Energy Systems and Sources etc.
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Scope and Importance:
Hybrid cars are the now the most important field in the automotive industry. With the current trends of fuel efficiency, alternative fuels, electric cars, PHEVs, and emission cutbacks, the future outlook of hybrid vehicle sector and green vehicle manufacturing is very much lucrative. With the advent of smart grid technologies and power electronics, the level of innovation in hybrid vehicle design is tremendous.
A hybrid vehicle is a vehicle that uses two or more distinct power sources to move the vehicle. The term most commonly refers to hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), which combine an internal combustion engine and one or more electric motors. However, other mechanisms to capture and use energy are included.
Power sources for hybrid vehicles include:
•Coal, wood or other solid combustibles
•Compressed or liquefied natural gas
•Electromagnetic fields, Radio waves
•Electric vehicle battery
•Human powered e.g. pedaling or rowing
•On-board or out-board rechargeable energy storage system (RESS)
•Petrol or Diesel fuel
Mopeds, electric bicycles, and even electric kick scooters are a simple form of a hybrid, as power is delivered both via an internal combustion engine or electric motor and the rider's muscles. Early prototypes of motorcycles in the late 19th century used the same principles to power it up.
•In a parallel hybrid bicycle human and motor power are mechanically coupled at the pedal drive train or at the rear or the front wheel, e.g. using a hub motor, a roller pressing onto a tire, or a connection to a wheel using a transmission element. Human and motor torques are added together. Almost all manufactured Motorized bicycles, Mopeds are of this type.
•In a series hybrid bicycle (SH) the user powers a generator using the pedals. This is converted into electricity and can be fed directly to the motor giving a chainless bicycle but also to charge a battery. The motor draws power from the battery and must be able to deliver the full mechanical torque required because none is available from the pedals. SH bicycles are commercially available, because they are very simple in theory and manufacturing.
The first known prototype and publication of an SH bicycle is by Augustus Kinzel (US Patent 3'884'317) in 1975. In 1994 Bernie Macdonalds conceived the Electrilite SH lightweight vehicle which used power electronics allowing regenerative braking and pedaling while stationary. In 1995 Thomas Muller designed a "Fahrrad mit elektromagnetischem Antrieb" in his 1995 diploma thesis and built a functional vehicle. In 1996 Jürg Blatter and Andreas Fuchs of Berne University of Applied Sciences built an SH bicycle and in 1998 mounted the system onto a Leitra tricycle (European patent EP 1165188). In 1999 Harald Kutzke described his concept of the "active bicycle": the aim is to approach the ideal bicycle weighing nothing and having no drag by electronic compensation. Until 2005 Fuchs and colleagues built several prototype SH tricycles and quadricycles.
Hybrid power trains use diesel-electric or turbo-electric to power railway locomotives, buses, heavy goods vehicles, mobile hydraulic machinery, and ships. Typically some form of heat engine (usually diesel) drives an electric generator or hydraulic pump which powers one or more electric or hydraulic motors. There are advantages in distributing power through wires or pipes rather than mechanical elements especially when multiple drives—e.g. driven wheels or propellers—are required. There is power lost in the double conversion from typically diesel fuel to electricity to power an electric or hydraulic motor. With large vehicles the advantages often outweigh the disadvantages especially as the conversion losses typically decrease with size. With the exception of non-nuclear submarines, presently there is no or relatively little secondary energy storage capacity on most heavy vehicles, e.g. auxiliary batteries and hydraulic accumulators—although this is now changing. Submarines are one of the oldest widespread applications of hybrid technology, running on diesel engines while surfaced and switching to battery power when submerged. Both series-hybrid and parallel hybrid drivetrains were used in the Second World War.
Growth in global automotive production is likely to remain at around+4% per year in 2014 and 2015,with an increase in production in China, India, and Mexico at the expense of Europe. Production is even expected to exceed 100 million vehicles by 2017. The major component manufacturers, which are essential for auto makers, have relocated to follow production and register healthy levels of profitability.
BCG predicts that, by 2016, one-third of world demand in automobile industry will be in the four BRIC markets (Brazil, Russia, India and China). Other potentially powerful automotive markets are Iran and Indonesia.
According to a J.D. Power study, emerging markets accounted for 51% of the global light-vehicle sales in 2010. The study expects this trend to accelerate. Emerging auto markets already buy more cars than established markets.
Relevant Society and Associations
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This page was last updated on 11th Sep, 2015
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