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As per available reports about 5 relevant Journals and 9 Conferences are presently dedicated exclusively to Heat Treatment and about 69 open-access articles and 36 conference proceedings are being published on Heat Treatment.
Heat treating is a group of industrial and metalworking methods used to vary the physical, and sometimes chemical, properties of a material. The most common application is metallurgical. Heat treatments are also used in the production of various other materials, such as glass. Heat treatment includes the use of heating or chilling, usually to extreme temperatures, to attain a desired effect such as hardening or softening of a material. Heat treatment is a common protocol in Nanomaterials, Design and Synthesis of Materials, Mining and Mineral Exploration, Manufacturing Process, Metallurgical Science etc.
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Scope and Importance:
Mining is the process where minerals or other geological materials are extracted from the earth, from an ore body, lode, vein, (coal) seam or reef. This eventually is the platform for a miner/ mining company to gain monetary benefits and commercialize the output of the activity.
Heat treating is a group of industrial and metalworking methods used to vary the physical, and sometimes chemical, properties of a material. The most common application is metallurgical. Heat treatments are also used in the production of various other materials, such as glass. Heat treatment includes the use of heating or chilling, usually to extreme temperatures, to attain a desired effect such as hardening or softening of a material. Heat treatment techniques comprise annealing, case hardening, precipitation strengthening, tempering and quenching. It is important that while the term heat treatment relates only to processes where the heating and cooling are done for the specific purpose of altering properties purposefully, heating and cooling frequently occur incidentally in other manufacturing processes such as hot forming or welding. Metallic materials comprise of a microstructure of small crystals called crystallites. The nature of the crystallites is one of the most effective problems that can determine the whole mechanical performance of the metal. Heat treatment provides an effective way to manipulate the properties of the metal by controlling the rate of diffusion and the rate of cooling within the microstructure. Heat treating is frequently used to modify the mechanical properties of an alloy, manipulating properties such as the hardness, strength; toughness, ductility, and elasticity. There are two mechanisms that may change an alloy's properties during heat treatment. The martensite reasons the crystals to deform intrinsically. The diffusion mechanism reasons changes in the similarity of the alloy. The specific composition of an alloy system will usually have a great effect on the results of heat treating. If the percentage of each constituent is just right, the alloy will form a single, continuous microstructure upon cooling. Such a mixture is said to be eutectoid. However, if the percentage of the solutes varies from the eutectoid mixture, two or more different microstructures will usually form simultaneously.
A eutectoid alloy is alike in behavior to a eutectic alloy. A eutectic alloy is categorized by having a single melting point. This melting point is lower than that of any of the constituents, and no modification in the mixture will lower the melting point any more. When a melted eutectic alloy is cooled, all of the constituents will crystallize into their individual phases at the equal temperature.
Hypo eutectoid alloys:
A hypoeutectic alloy has two distinct melting points. Both are above the eutectic melting point for the structure, but are below the melting points of any constituent forming the system. Among these two melting points, the alloy will be as part solid and part liquid. The constituent with the lower melting point will harden first. When completely hardened, a hypoeutectic alloy will repeatedly be in solid solution.
A hypereutectic alloy also has dissimilar melting points. Though, between these points, it is the constituent with the higher melting point that will be solid. Likewise, a hypereutectoid alloy has two critical temperatures. When cooling a hypereutectoid alloy from the upper alteration temperature, it will usually be the excess solutes that crystallize-out first, forming the proeutectoid. This continues until the concentration in the remaining alloy becomes eutectoid, which then crystallizes into separate microstructure. Hypereutectoid steel comprises more than 0.77% carbon. When slowly cooling a hypereutectoid steel, the cementite will initiate to crystallize first. When the remaining steel becomes eutectoid in composition, it will crystallize into pearlite. Since cementite is much harder than pearlite, the alloy has greater hardenability at a cost in the ductility.
The Mining division's capital intensity has increased over the past 20 years, a trend that is expected to continue during the next five years. For every dollar absorbed by depreciation, $1.27 is allocated to wage costs. The division's net capital spending is substantial. Capital spending is heavily influenced by mineral prices, and also reflects shifts in focus between investment and production. Typically, periods of strong investment are followed by phases when new operations are bedded down.
The market is dominated by Asia-Pacific which accounted for a share of about 39.8% in 2013. It is estimated to be the fastest growing market at a CAGR of 7.5% from 2014 to 2019.
Relevant Society and Associations
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This page was last updated on 11th Sep, 2015