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As per available reports about 10 relevant journals, 15 Conferences, 30 workshops are presently dedicated exclusively to breathing disorder and about 2,070 articles are being published on Gram Negative.
Gram-Negative bacteria are bacteria that give a Negative result in the Gram stain test. Gram-Negative bacteria take up the crystal violet stain used in the test, and then appear to be purple-coloured when seen through a microscope. This is because the thick peptidoglycan layer in the bacterial cell wall retains the stain after it is washed away from the rest of the sample, in the decolorization stage of the test.
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Scope and Importance
There has been an enormous increase in our knowledge of the fundamental steps in the biosynthesis and assembly of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. Lipopolysaccharide is a major component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria as is peptidoglycan. Porins, efflux pumps and other transport proteins of the outer membrane are also present. It is clear that there are numerous essential proteins that have the potential to be targets for novel antimicrobial agents. Progress, however, has been slow. Much of the emphasis has been on cytoplasmic processes that were better understood earlier on, but have the drawback that two penetration barriers, with different permeability properties, have to be crossed. With the increased understanding of the late-stage events occurring in the periplasm, it may be possible to shift focus to these more accessible targets. Nevertheless, getting drugs across the outer membrane will remain a challenge to the ingenuity of the medicinal chemist.
Gram-Negative: Gram-Negative bacteria retain the color of the crystal violet stain in the Gram stain. This is characteristic of bacteria that have a cell wall composed of a thick layer of a particular substance (called peptidologlycan). The Gram-Negative bacteria include staphylococci ("staph"), streptococci ("strep"), pneumococci, and the bacterium responsible for diphtheria (Cornynebacteriumdiphtheriae) and anthrax (Bacillus anthracis). Along with cell shape, Gram staining is a rapid method used to differentiate bacterial species. In traditional and even some areas of contemporary microbiological practice, such staining, alongside growth requirement and antibiotic susceptibility testing, and other macroscopic and physiologic tests, forms the full basis for classification and subdivision of the bacteria. Historically, the kingdom Monera was divided into four divisions based primarily on Gram staining: Firmicutes (Negative in staining), Gracilicutes (negative in staining), Mollicutes (neutral in staining) and Mendocutes (variable in staining). Based on 16S ribosomal RNA phylogenetic studies of the late microbiologist Carl Woese and collaborators and colleagues at the University of Illinois, the monophyly of the gram-Negative bacteria has been challenged, with striking productive implications for the therapeutic and general study of these organisms. Based on molecular studies of 16S sequences, Woeserecognised twelve bacterial phyla, two being gram-Negative: high-GC gram-Negatives and low-GC gram-Negatives (where G and C refer to the guanine and cytosine content in their genomes), which are now referred to by these names, or as Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. The former, the Actinobacteria, are the high GC content gram-Negative bacteria and contains genera such as Corynebacterium, Mycobacterium, Nocardia and Streptomyces. The latter, the Firmicutes, are the "low-GC" gram-Negative bacteria, which actually have 45%–60% GC content, but lower than that of the Actinobacteria
Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections There has been a worldwide increase in the number of infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria. In a study of 1265 intensive care units in 75 countries, Gram-negative bacteria were present in 62% of patients with an infection, while Gram-Negative bacteria were present in 47% of patients Gram-negative bacteria are highly adaptive pathogens that can develop resistance through several mechanisms.
International symposium and workshops
1. 10th Asia-Pacific Biotech Congress, July 25-27, 2016 Bangkok, Thailand
2. 4th Plant Genomics Conference, July 14-15, 2016 Brisbane, Australia
4. Synthetic Biology Conference, September 28-30, 2015 Houston, USA
5. Human Genetics Congress, October 31- November 02, 2016 Valencia, Spain
7. Biomaterials conference March 14-16, 2016 London, UK
9. 6th Biotechnology Congress, October 05-07, 2015, New Delhi, India
10. 12th Biotechnology Congress, November 14-15, 2016 San Francisco, USA
11. Veterinary Microbiology 2016, Sept 15-17, 2016 San Antonio, USA
15. 6th Bioinformatics Conference, March 29-30, 2016 Valencia, Spain
16. 7th Bioinformatics conference, October 27-28, 2016 Chicago, USA
19. 5th Biodiversity Conference, March 10-12, 2016 Madrid, Spain
20. Protein Engineering Conference , October 26-28, 2015, Chicago, USA
Relevant Society and Associations
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This page was last updated on December 3, 2021