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As per available reports about 10 relevant journals, 15 Conferences, 30 workshops are presently dedicated exclusively to Fed Batch Fermentation and about 2,070 articles are being published on Fed Batch Fermentation.
Fermentation is defined as the chemical breakdown of carbohydrates by bacteria, yeasts, or other microorganisms to alcohols and carbon dioxide under anaerobic conditions. During fermentation the industrial microorganisms are grown under controlled conditions with an aim of optimizing the growth of the organism for production of a target microbial product. The rate of fermentation depends on the concentration of microorganisms, cells, cellular components, and enzymes, temperature and pH. Industrial fermentation is of various types which include batch fermentation, fed batch fermentation, continuous fermentation.
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Scope and Importance:
From the concept of its implementation it can be easily concluded that under controllable conditions and with the required knowledge of the microorganism involved in the fermentation, the feed of the required components for growth and/or other substrates required for the production of the product can never be depleted and the nutritional environment can be maintained approximately constant during the course of the batch. The production of by-products that are generally related to the presence of high concentrations of substrate can also be avoided by limiting its quantity to the amounts that are required solely for the production of the biochemical. When high concentrations of substrate are present, the cells get "overloaded", this is, the oxidative capacity of the cells is exceeded, and due to the Crabtree effect, products other than the one of interest are produced, reducing the efficacy of the carbon flux. Moreover, these by-products prove to even "contaminate" the product of interest, such as ethanol production in baker's yeast production, and to impair the cell growth reducing the fermentation time and its related productivity.
In fed batch fermentation the fresh media is added continuously or sometimes periodically added and the product formed is removed simultaneously. Fed batch reactor is the most common type of reactor used in industry. The process of fed batch fermentation is divided into a series of steps. The first step is logistics i.e. the delivery and storage of raw materials, then the processing of raw materials for the fermentation called as upstream processing. The third step is fermentation where the major conversion occurs and then downstream processing that involves the purification and concentration of raw product and the last step is out-bound logistics i.e. the final packaging, storage and delivery of the purified product.
Fermentation chemicals are used as process initiators in several applications. Fermentation chemicals help in speeding the process reactions and saves time, energy and process cost. Fermentation chemicals are widely used in industries across the globe, owing to their natural structure, low cost and better outputs. The major product class of fermentation chemicals consists of alcohols, enzymes and organic acids. Fermentation chemicals are utilized in variety of applications in a wide range of chemical processes in industries such as alcohol industry, pharmaceutical industry, food and beverages industry, chemical industry, textile industry and rubber industry among others. The revenue generated by the global fermentation chemicals market was USD 41,567.7 million in 2012 which is expected to reach USD 60,123.9 million by 2019, growing at a CAGR of 5.4% from 2013 to 2019.
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This page was last updated on 12th Sep, 2015
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