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Diarrhea also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day. It often lasts for a few days and can result in dehydration due to fluid loss. Signs of dehydration often begin with loss of the normal stretchiness of the skin and changes in personality. This can progress to decreased urination, loss of skin color, a fast heart rate, and a decrease in responsiveness as it becomes more severe. Loose but non watery stools in babies who are breastfed, however, may be normal.
The most common cause is an infection of the intestines due to either a virus, bacteria, or parasite; a condition known as gastroenteritis. These infections are often acquired from food or water that has been contaminated by stool, or directly from another person who is infected. It may be divided into three types: short duration watery diarrhea, short duration bloody diarrhea, and if it lasts for more than two weeks, persistent diarrhea. The short duration watery diarrhea may be due to an infection by cholera. If blood is present it is also known as dysentery.A number of non-infectious causes may also result in diarrhea, including hyperthyroidism, lactose intolerance, inflammatory bowel disease, a number of medications, and irritable bowel syndrome.In most cases stool cultures are not required to confirm the exact cause.
Prevention of infectious diarrhea is by improved sanitation, clean drinking water, and hand washing with soap. Breastfeeding for at least six months is also recommended as is vaccination against rotavirus. Oral rehydration solution (ORS), which is clean water with modest amounts of salts and sugar, is the treatment of choice. Zinc tablets are also recommended.These treatments have been estimated to have saved 50 million children in the past 25 years.When people have diarrhea it is recommended that they continue to eat healthy food and babies continue to be breastfeed. If commercial ORS are not available, homemade solutions may be used.In those with severe dehydration, intravenous fluids may be required. Most cases; however, can be managed well with fluids by mouth.Antibiotics, while rarely used, may be recommended in a few cases such as those who have bloody diarrhea and a high fever, those with severe diarrhea following travelling, and those who grow specific bacteria or parasites in their stool. Loperamide may help decrease the number of bowel movement but is not recommended in those with severe disease.
In many cases of diarrhea, replacing lost fluid and salts is the only treatment needed. This is usually by mouth – oral rehydration therapy – or, in severe cases, intravenously.Diet restrictions such as the BRAT diet are no longer recommended.Research does not support the limiting of milk to children as doing so has no effect on duration of diarrhea. To the contrary, WHO recommends that children with diarrhea continue to eat as sufficient nutrients are usually still absorbed to support continued growth and weight gain, and that continuing to eat also speeds up recovery of normal intestinal functioning.CDC recommends that children and adults with cholera also continue to eat.
Medications such as loperamide (Imodium) and bismuth subsalicylate may be beneficial; however they may be contraindicated in certain situations.
1. 2nd World Congress and Expo on Applied Microbiology,
October 31- November 2, 2016 Istanbul, Turkey
4. Human Papillomavirus Conference,
May 2-3, 2016 Chicago, USA
5. Lupus Conference,
Oct 27-28, 2016 Chicago, USA
6. Allergy Conference,
March 29-30, 2016 Valencia, Spain
7. Mycology Conference,
Sept 12-14, 2016 San Antonio, USA
8. Medical Parasitology Conference,
Oct 17-19, 2016 Houston, USA
10. 5th Virology Conference,
Dec 1-3, 2016, Baltimore, USA
11. 2nd Influenza Conference,
Sept 12-14, 2016 Berlin, Germany
12. 2nd Parasitology Conference,
Oct 10-12, 2016 Manchester, UK
13. 6th Euro Virology Conference,
March 10-12, 2016 Madrid, Spain
16. 2nd Flu Conference,
Nov 17-19, 2016 San Francisco, USA
17. 3rd Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Conference,
July 11-12, 2016 Brisbane, Australia
18. European Infectious Diseases Conference,
Aug 1-3, 2016 Frankfurt, Germany
22. 72nd Allergy, Asthma and Immunology Conference,
San Antonio, USA
23. 26th European Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Conference, Istanbul, Turkey
24. Infection Prevention and Control Conference, Tübingen, Germany
25. 17th Infectious Diseases Conference, Hyderabad, India
26. 34th Annual Infectious Diseases Conference, Sacramento, California
27. ASM-Microbe 2016
28. 17th International Conference MPMI
29. MSBJ Annual Meeting
30. Problems in Listeriosis Conference
1. American society for Micro Biology
2. Society for General Micro Biology
3. Swiss Society for Micro Biology
4. Society for applied Microbiology
5. International Union of Microbiological societies
6. Federation of European Microbiological Societies
• Gilead Sciences, Inc.
• Amgen, Inc.
• Celgene Corporation
• Biogen Idec, Inc.
• Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
• Alexion Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
• Vertex Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
• Illumina, Inc.
• BioMarin Pharmaceutical, Inc.
• Agilent Technologies, Inc.
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