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As per available reports about 8 Relevant Journal, 32 Conferences, 4 National Symposiums are presently dedicated exclusively to Diabetic Nephropathy and about 25 articles are being published on Diabetic nephrology.
Diabetic Nephropathy (Nephropatia Diabetica) also known as Kimmelstiel–Wilson syndrome, or nodular diabetic glomerulosclerosis and intercapillary glomerulonephritis, is a progressive kidney disease caused by angiopathy of capillaries in the kidney glomeruli. It is characterized by nephrotic syndrome and diffuse glomerulosclerosis. It is due to longstanding diabetes mellitus. The kidneys have many tiny blood vessels that filter waste from your blood. High blood sugar from diabetes can destroy these blood vessels. Over time, the kidney isn't able to do its job as well. Later it may stop working completely.
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Scope and importance
Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of kidney disease in patients starting renal replacement therapy and affects ~30% of type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients. This review focuses on the progression and pathophysiological aspects of the condition. The natural history of diabetic nephropathy is characterized by specific renal morphological and functional alterations. With the global epidemic of diabetes, diabetic nephropathy has become an important clinical and public health challenge. IH de Boer and colleagues estimated the disease burden of diabetic nephropathy in the US adult population aged 20 years or older using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Diabetic nephropathy was defined as diabetes with the presence of albuminuria, impaired glomerular filtration rate, or both. These disorders likely interact with diabetes to exacerbate the kidney damage. In addition, increases in diabetic nephropathy prevalence are the largest for persons aged 65 years or older among whom diabetic nephropathy is most common.
Diabetic Nephropathy (Nephropatia Diabetica) also known as Kimmelstiel–Wilson syndrome, or nodular diabetic glomerulosclerosis and intercapillary glomerulonephritis, is a progressive kidney disease caused by angiopathy of capillaries in the kidney glomeruli. It is characterized by nephrotic syndrome and diffuse glomerulosclerosis. It is due to longstanding diabetes mellitus. The kidneys have many tiny blood vessels that filter waste from your blood. High blood sugar from diabetes can destroy these blood vessels. Over time, the kidney isn't able to do its job as well. Later it may stop working completely. This is called kidney failure.
The symptoms include: edema, swelling, usually around the eyes in the mornings later, general body swelling may result, such as swelling of the legs foamy appearance or excessive frothing of the urine, unintentional weight gain, anorexia (poor appetite), nausea and vomiting, malaise (general ill feeling), fatigue, headache, frequent hiccups.
Diabetic nephropathy is treated with medicines that lower blood pressure and protect the kidneys. These medicines may slow down kidney damage and are started as soon as any amount of protein is found in the urine (microalbuminuria). It is also important to keep your blood sugar within your target range. Maintaining blood sugar levels within your target range prevents damage to the small blood vessels in the kidneys. Limiting the amount of salt in your diet can help keep your high blood pressure from getting worse. You may also want to restrict the amount of protein in your diet. If diabetes has affected your kidneys, limiting how much protein you eat may help you preserve kidney function. If you also have high blood pressure, two or more medicines may be needed to lower your blood pressure enough to protect your kidneys.
Diabetic nephropathy is a common complication of diabetes and the leading cause of chronic kidney disease in the developed world. Approximately 40 % of persons with diabetes develop diabetic nephropathy, manifested as albuminuria and/or decreased glomerular filtration rate. Prevalence of diabetes has reached epidemic proportions in the world. According to the International Diabetes Federation, there were 366 million people with diabetes in 2011, and this is expected to rise to 552 million by 2030. Most people with diabetes live in low- and middle-income countries, and these countries are anticipated the greatest increase in diabetes over the next decades. In the USA, 11.3 % or 25.6 million adults aged 20 years or older had diabetes in 2011, with prevalence increasing in older age groups (26.9 % of people aged ≥65 years) The estimated number of persons with diabetic nephropathy in the USA was 6.9 million (95 % CI, 6.0–7.9 million) during 2005–2008. Among the US adults with diabetes, the prevalence of any diabetic nephropathy was 34.5 %, the prevalence of albuminuria (with or without impaired glomerular filtration rate) was 23.7 %, and the prevalence of impaired glomerular filtration rate (with or without albuminuria) was 17.7 % in 2005–2008.
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