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Hepatitis B is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) which affects the liver. It can cause both acute and chronic infections. Many people have no symptoms during the initial infection. Some develop a rapid onset of sickness with vomiting, yellow skin, feeling tired, dark urine and abdominal pain. Often these symptoms last a few weeks and rarely does the initial infection result in death. It may take 30 to 180 days for symptoms to begin. In those who get infected around the time of birth 90% develop chronic hepatitis B while less than 10% of those infected after the age of five do. Most of those with chronic disease have no symptoms; however, cirrhosis and liver cancer may eventually develop. These complications results in the death of 15 to 25% of those with chronic disease.
The virus is transmitted by exposure to infectious blood or body fluids. Infection around the time of birth or from contact with other people during childhood is the most frequent method by which hepatitis B is acquired in areas where the disease is common. In areas where the disease is rare intravenous drug use and sexual intercourse are the most frequent routes of infection. Other risk factors include: working in healthcare, blood transfusions, dialysis, living with an infected person, travel in countries where the infection rate is high, and living in an institution. Tattooing and acupuncture led to a significant number of cases in the 1980s; however, this has become less common with improved sterility. The hepatitis B viruses cannot be spread by holding hands, sharing eating utensils, kissing, hugging, coughing, sneezing, or breastfeeding. The infection can be diagnosed 30 to 60 days after exposure. Diagnosis is typically by testing the blood for parts of the virus and for antibodies against the virus. It is one of five knownhepatitis viruses: A, B, C, D, and E.
The infection has been preventable by vaccination since 1982. Vaccination is recommended by the World Health Organization in the first day of life if possible. Two or three more doses are required at a latter time for full effect. This vaccine works about 95% of the time. About 180 countries gave the vaccine as part of national programs as of 2006. It is also recommended that all blood be tested for hepatitis B before transfusion and condoms be used to prevent infection. During an initial infection, care is based on the symptoms that a person has. In those who develop chronic disease antiviral medication such as tenofovir or interferon maybe useful, however these drugs are expensive. Liver transplantation is sometimes used for cirrhosis.
About a third of the world population has been infected at one point in their lives, including 240 million to 350 million who have chronic infections. Over 750,000 people die of hepatitis B each year. The disease is now only common in East Asia and sub-Saharan Africa where between 5 and 10% of adults have chronic disease. Rates in Europe and North America are less than 1%. It was originally known as serum hepatitis. Research is looking to create foods that contain HBV vaccine. The disease may affect othergreat apes as well.
OMICS International Organizes 1000+ Global Events. Every Year across USA, Europe & Asia with support from 1000 more scientific societies and Publishes 700+ Open Accesswhich contains over 100000 eminent personalities, reputed scientists as editorial board and organizing committee members. The Conference serieswebsite will provide you list and details about the conference organize worldwide.
Scope & Importance Global revenue for vaccine technologies was nearly $31.8 billion in 2011. This market is expected to increase from $33.6 billion in 2012 to $43.4 billion in 2017 at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 5.3%.An overview of the global market for human and animal (veterinary) vaccines and related vaccine technologies. Analyses of global market trends, with data from 2010, 2011 and 2012, and projections of compound annual growth rates (CAGRs) through 2017. Examination of current and future strategies within the human and animal (veterinary) vaccines markets, including attenuated (live) vaccines, inactivated (killed) vaccines, conjugate vaccines, recombinant/recombinant DNA (rDNA) vaccines, subunit vaccines, toxoid vaccines, and combination vaccines. A breakdown of the seven major categories of vaccines broken down by market shares belonging to leading manufacturers and/or suppliers. Discussion of human and animal (veterinary) vaccines as to their prophylactic or therapeutic use, with emphasis in the meningococcal/pneumococcal vaccines, influenza vaccines, pediatric vaccines, adult/adolescent vaccines, and travel vaccines.
: Conferences from OMICS International: :
Protein Engineering Conference October 26-28, 2015 Chicago, USA
Vaccines Middle East Conference September 28-30, 2015 Dubai, UAE
Vaccines Asia Pacific Conference November 10-12, 2016 Melbourne, Australia
Vaccines 2015 November 30-December 02, 2015 San Francisco, USA
Euro Vaccines Conference June 16-18, 2016 Rome, Italy
Hepatities Vaccines Conference June 16-18, 2016 Rome, Italy
Hiv Vaccines Conference Oct 3-5, 2016 Miami, USA
Vaccines USA Conference November 30-December 02, 2015 San Francisco, USA
Proteomics Conference September 01-03, 2015 Valencia, Spain
World Proteomics Conference March 29-30, 2016 Atlanta, USA
Conferences out of OMICS:
2015 IMMUNIZATION SUMMIT! NAMPA, IDAHO MONDAY, SEPTEMBER 21, 2015
14th Annual Measles and Rubella Initiative Meeting: Focusing on the Human and Financial Costs of Measles Washington, USA September 15-16, 2015
19th Annual Conference on Vaccine Research April 18-20, 2016 Baltimore, MD
Clinical Vaccinology Course Bethesda, MD November 13, 2015
9th Vaccine & ISV Congress 18-20 October 2015 | Lotte Hotel, Seoul, South Korea
2016 North Dakota State Immunization Conference August 3-4, 2016, Bismarck, ND
Relevant societies and associations:
Immunization Action Coalition
The International Society for Vaccines
Center for Knowledge Societies
Applied Research on Cancer (ARC-NET)
The network of National Cancer Institutions of Latin America (RINC)
American Cancer Society
African Organization for Research & Training in Cancer (AORTIC)
GAVI, THE VACCINE ALLIANCE
Centre of Genomics and Policy (CGP)
Vaccine Delivery Innovation Initiative
Four Seasons Pharmacy
Dubai Health authority
Antivenom & vaccine Production centre
The centre for food security &public Health
National Institute of Agrobiological SciencesGenebank
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This page was last updated on 03rd Sep, 2015
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