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Bacterial genome is the collection of a bacterium's entire genetic information. Essentially, it determines how a bacterium looks and functions, both externally and internally. This genetic information is organized into genes, which are encoded in the organism’s deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Those genes are further organized into chromosomes. In fact, the word “genome” is actually a combination of the words “gene” and “chromosome.” Although there are many different variations of how genomes are structured in different organisms, all bacteria are haploid, meaning they possess only one chromosome. Thus, all the genetic information contained in a bacterial genome is contained in a single chromosome.
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Scope & Importance:
Bacterial genomes are generally smaller and less variant in size between species when compared with genomes of animals and single cell eukaryotes. Bacterial genetics is the study of the mechanisms of heritable information in bacteria, their chromosomes, plasmids, transposons and phages.
Bacteria possess a compact genome architecture distinct from eukaryotes in two important ways: bacteria show a strong correlation between genome size and number of functional genes in a genome, and those genes are structured into operons.  The main reason for the relative density of bacterial genomes compared to eukaryotic genomes (especially multicellular eukaryotes) is the presence of noncoding DNA in the form of intergenic regions and introns. Some notable exceptions include recently formed pathogenic bacteria.
1. Medical Genetics Society of Israel
2. Norwegian Society of Medical Genetics
3. Latvian Society of Medical Genetics
Genomic Companies :
2. Genetic Technologies Group
4. Ambry Genetics
5. Biospyder Technologies
6. Predictive biology
8. Cypher Genomics
9. Agena Bioscience
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This page was last updated on 15th Sep, 2015
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