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Thrombosis is the formation of a blood clot inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system. When a blood vessel is injured, the body uses platelets and fibrin to form a blood clot to prevent blood loss. Even when a blood vessel is not injured, blood clots may form in the body under certain conditions. A clot that breaks free and begins to travel around the body is known as an embolus. When a thrombus is significantly large enough to reduce the blood flow to a tissue, hypoxia can occur and metabolic products such as lactic acid can accumulate. A larger thrombus causing a much greater obstruction to the blood flow may result in anoxia, the complete deprivation of oxygen and infarction, tissue death. There are also a number of other conditions that can arise according to the location of the thrombus and the organs affected.
There are two distinct forms of thrombosis, venous thrombosis and arterial thrombosis, each of which can be presented by several subtypes: Venous thrombosis:
Venous thrombosis is the formation of a thrombus (blood clot) within a vein. There are several diseases which can be classified under this category:
Deep vein thrombosis:
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is the formation of a blood clot within a deep vein. It most commonly affects leg veins, such as the femoral vein. Three factors are important in the formation of a blood clot within a deep vein—these are the rate of blood flow, the thickness of the blood and qualities of the vessel wall. Classical signs of DVT include swelling, pain and redness of the affected area.
Portal vein thrombosis:
Portal vein thrombosis affects the hepatic portal vein, which can lead to portal hypertension and reduction of the blood supply to the liver. It usually has a pathological cause such as pancreatitis, cirrhosis, diverticulitis or cholangiocarcinoma.
Renal vein thrombosis:
Renal vein thrombosis is the obstruction of the renal vein by a thrombus. This tends to lead to reduced drainage from the kidney. Anticoagulation therapy is the treatment of choice.
Jugular vein thrombosis:
Jugular vein thrombosis is a condition that may occur due to infection, intravenous drug use or malignancy. Jugular vein thrombosis can have a varying list of complications, including: systemic sepsis, pulmonary embolism, and papilledema. Though characterized by a sharp pain at the site of the vein, it can prove difficult to diagnose, because it can occur at random.
Budd-Chiari syndrome is the blockage of the hepatic vein or the inferior vena cava. This form of thrombosis presents with abdominal pain, ascites and hepatomegaly. Treatment varies between therapy and surgical intervention by the use of shunts. Paget-Schroetter disease:
Paget-Schroetter disease is the obstruction of an upper extremity vein (such as the axillary vein or subclavian vein) by a thrombus. The condition usually comes to light after vigorous exercise and usually presents in younger, otherwise healthy people. Men are affected more than women.
Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis:
Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is a rare form of stroke which results from the blockage of the dural venous sinuses by a thrombus. Symptoms may include headache, abnormal vision, any of the symptoms of stroke such as weakness of the face and limbs on one side of the body and seizures. The diagnosis is usually made with a CT or MRI scan. The majority of persons affected make a full recovery. The mortality rate is 4.3%.
A stroke is the rapid decline of brain function due to a disturbance in the supply of blood to the brain. This can be due to ischemia, thrombus, embolus (a lodged particle) or hemorrhage (a bleed). In thrombotic stroke, a thrombus (blood clot) usually forms around atherosclerotic plaques. Since blockage of the artery is gradual, onset of symptomatic thrombotic strokes is slower. Thrombotic stroke can be divided into two categories—large vessel disease and small vessel disease. The former affects vessels such as the internal carotids, vertebral and the circle of Willis. The latter can affect smaller vessels such as the branches of the circle of Willis.
Myocardial infarction (MI) or heart attack, is caused by ischemia, (restriction in the blood supply), often due to the obstruction of a coronary artery by a thrombus. This restriction gives an insufficient supply of oxygen to the heart muscle which then results in tissue death,(infarction). A lesion is then formed which is the infarct. MI can quickly become fatal if emergency medical treatment is not received promptly. If diagnosed within 12 hours of the initial episode then thrombolytic therapy is initiated.
OMICS Group International is an amalgamation of Open Access publications and worldwide and events. Established in the year 2007 with the sole aim of making the information on Sciences and technology ‘Open Access’, OMICS Group publishes 400 online scholarly journals in all aspects of Science, Engineering, Management and Technology journals. OMICS Group has been instrumental in taking the knowledge on Science & technology to the doorsteps of ordinary men and women. Research Scholars, Students, Libraries, Educational Institutions, Research centers and the industry are main stakeholders that benefitted greatly from this knowledge dissemination. OMICS Group also organizes 300 International conferences annually across the globe, where knowledge transfer takes place through debates, round table discussions, poster presentations, workshops, symposia and exhibitions.OMICS Group International ventured into Scientific Alliance, has already signed agreement with more than 1000 scientific associations worldwide to make health care and scientific information open access. This brings together a platform for global networking among the community through shared resources and working together in multifarious key areas. Now OMICS Group is going to organize International conference on Thrombosis and Hemostasis in Beijing, China, July 13-15, 2015.
List of major Venous Thromboembolism and related journals:
• Thrombosis Journal
• Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases & Diagnosis
• Cardiovascular Pharmacology: Open Access
• International Journal of Cardiovascular Research
• The British Journal of Diabetes & Vascular Disease
• Journal of Clinical & Experimental Cardiology
• Annals of Vascular Diseases
• Journal of Vascular Surgery
• Journal of Vascular Medicine & Surgery
• Journal of Vascular Health and Risk Management
List of major venous thromboembolism related conferences:
• 5th Annual Venous Thromboembolism (Vte) and Anti-Coagulation Therapy Conference
• 2nd International Conference on Hematology & Blood Disorders
• Up-to-Date Management of Venous Thromboelism
List of major venous thromboembolism related research centers:
• Mobilising pharmacists in venous thromboembolism prevention
• Engaging with nurses, midwifes and junior doctors for early detection of Venous thromboembolism
• 46th Annual New York Cardiovascular Symposium
• Vascular Trauma Workshop
• CQUIN and Risk Assessment
This page will be updated regularly.
This page was last updated on 10th Oct, 2014
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