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An aquatic ecosystem is an ecosystem in a body of water. Communities of organisms that are dependent on each other and on their environment live in aquatic ecosystems. The two main types of aquatic ecosystems are marine ecosystems and freshwater ecosystems. Marine ecosystems cover approximately 71% of the Earth's surface and contain approximately 97% of the planet's water. They generate 32% of the world's net primary production. They are distinguished from freshwater ecosystems by the presence of dissolved compounds, especially salts, in the water. Approximately 85% of the dissolved materials in seawater are sodium and chlorine. Seawater has an average salinity of 35 parts per thousand (ppt) of water. Actual salinity varies among different marine ecosystems.
Marine ecosystems can be divided into many zones depending upon water depth and shoreline features. The oceanic zone is the vast open part of the ocean where animals such as whales, sharks, and tuna live. The benthic zone consists of substrates below water where many invertebrates live. The intertidal zone is the area between high and low tides; in this figure it is termed the littoral zone. Other near-shore (neritic) zones can include estuaries, salt marshes, coral reefs, lagoons and mangrove swamps. In the deep water, hydrothermal vents may occur where chemosynthetic sulfur bacteria form the base of the food web.
OMICS International is the one which is organizing the global wide international conferences in field of multiple research topics in all subjects, and exploring the scientific knowledge throughout the globe. This Global event organizer conducting 1000+ conferences & expo per year and running in the track of peak of success with worldwide conferences, not only the conferences. Also having 700 open access journals , 50000 eminent personalities in the editorial board from round of globe, 100000 flowing from Facebook, publication immediately after acceptance, Quick and quality editorial review process. Well organized workshops, global events and symposia, renowned speakers and scientists across the globe, poster presentations and world class exhibitions, panel discussions & interactive sessions, perfect platform for global networking, B2B meetings, alliances and associations, collaborative research opportunities, supported by reputed associations and societies.
Scope & Importance
Aquatic ecosystems perform many important environmental functions. For example, they recycle nutrients, purify water, attenuate floods, recharge ground water and provide habitats for wildlife. Aquatic ecosystems are also used for human recreation, and are very important to the tourism industry; especially in coastal regions. The health of an aquatic ecosystem is degraded when the ecosystem's ability to absorb a stress has been exceeded. A stress on an aquatic ecosystem can be a result of physical, chemical or biological alterations of the environment. Physical alterations include changes in water temperature, water flow and light availability. Chemical alterations include changes in the loading rates of bio stimulatory nutrients, oxygen consuming materials, and toxins. Biological alterations include over-harvesting of commercial species and the introduction of exotic species.
Human populations can impose excessive stresses on aquatic ecosystems. There are many examples of excessive stresses with negative consequences. Consider three. The environmental history of the Great Lakes of North America illustrates this problem, particularly how multiple stresses, such as water pollution, over-harvesting and invasive species can combine. The Norfolk Broadlands in England illustrate similar decline with pollution and invasive species. Lake Pontchartrain along the Gulf of Mexico illustrates the negative effects of different stresses including levee construction, logging of swamps, invasive species and salt water intrusion.
Global wide scope of Aquatic Ecosystem
Forests are the dominant ecosystems in Pennsylvania, with more than 16.6 million acres of forestland covering 58 percent of the land area of the state. These forest ecosystems provide a host of values to the people of the state. They grow economically valuable hardwoods, such as cherry, oak, and maple, and a variety of valuable nonwood products, such as maple syrup and ginseng. They protect the watersheds that yield the majority of the state’s fresh water. Pennsylvania has 83,161 miles of rivers and streams; 3,956 lakes, reservoirs, and ponds covering 161,445 acres accessible to the public; and freshwater wetlands covering a total of 403,724 acres. The state’s forests and the streams that flow through and from them provide habitat for the vast majority of the state’s wildlife. They provide open spaces and opportunities for people to experience nature and the outdoors through activities like hiking, camping, hunting, fishing, and boating. In addition, urban and community forests contribute substantially to the quality of the environments where people live. The trees that most residents see every day are in their communities. These landscape trees are vital to a healthy and prosperous environment, providing many environmental, aesthetic, and economic benefits.
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