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Sterilized Infusion is the process of extracting chemical compounds or flavors from plant material in a solvent such as water, oil or alcohol, by allowing the material to remain suspended in the solvent over time (a process often called steeping). An infusion is also the name for the resultant liquid.
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Hypertonic saline may be used in perioperative fluid management protocols to reduce excessive intravenous fluid infusions and lessen pulmonary complications. Hypertonic saline is used in treating hyponatremia and cerebral edema Rapid correction of hyponatremia via hypertonic saline, or via any saline infusion > 40 mmol/L (Na+ having a valence of 1, 40 mmol/L = 40 mEq/L) greatly increases risk of central pontine myelinolysis (CPM), and so requires constant monitoring of patient response. Water privation combined with diuretic block does not produce as much risk of CPM as saline administration does; however, it does not correct hyponatremia as rapidly as administration of hypertonic saline does. Due to hypertonicity, administration may result in phlebitis and tissue necrosis. As such, concentrations greater than 3% NaCl should normally be administered via a central venous catheter, also known as a 'central line'. Such hypertonic saline is normally available in two strengths, the former of which is more commonly administered:
The process of infusion is distinct from decoction, which involves boiling the plant material...
Many people equate Sterilized infusion therapy with "being on a drip." Infusion therapy supports the healing process of patients, for example, by supplying them with important medication and nutrition, and is therefore one of the main elements of treatment and may even save a patient's life. Eight steps to be followed in the preparation of Sterilized Infusion.
1. Production Of High-Purity Water - WFI (Water For Injection)
2. Receiving Inspection Of The Raw Materials
3. Weighing Of The Raw Materials
4. Preparation Of The Infusion Solution
5. Filling Of The Infusion Solution
6. Further Processing And Testing Of The Full Infusion Solution Container
7. Sterilization Of The Infusion Solution
8. Labeling And Packing Of The Infusion Solution Containers
Sterile solutions intended for infusion after dilution with appropriate volume of this liquid. After dilution resulting solution must meet the requirements to infusion solutions. Additional requirements for concentrates:
a. compatibility with solvents used for diluting;
b. stability after dilution;
c. possibility of intravenous administration
Ready sterile solution in the container is frozen and stored at a temperature -20 ° C. After defrost solutions are immediate used within 24 hours or short term storage at 2-8 ° C. They are applied to get ready to use infusion solutions with insoluble cephalosporin antibiotics and antibiotics of other groups. Available in 0.9 % sodium chloride or 5 % glucose solution in special containers capacity of 50 and 100 ml.
3% NaCl has 513 mEq/L of Na and Cl.
5% NaCl has 856 mEq/L of Na and Cl.
As per the WHO chronic disorders are currently identified as the leading cause of mortality, causing around 60% of all deaths globally and by 2020 these disorders are expected to account for 73% of all deaths. It has been estimated that administering of medications at home costs around USD 150 to USD 200 a day, far below the cost of a typical inpatient hospital stay which costs USD 1,500 to USD 2,500 per day. Home infusion therapy also eliminates the chances of contracting a hospital acquired infection and thus, is expected to score high on the patient preference matrix. The global home infusion therapy market was valued at USD 16.1 billion in 2014 and is expected to grow at a CAGR of 8.9% during the forecast period.
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Relevant Society and Associations
1. Parenteral Drug Associations
2. American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
3. Australian Medical Association
4. American Pharmacists Association
5. American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists
6. International Academy of Compounding Pharmacists
7. European Medicines Agency
8. American College of Clinical Pharmacy
9. European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism
10. American Society for Nutrition
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This page was last updated on 11th Sep, 2015
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