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Sphingosomes are liposome which is composed of sphingolipids. Sphingosomes are vesicular drug delivery systems in which an aqueous volume is entirely enclosed with sphingolipid bilayer membranes. Sphingosomes have become an enhanced area of interest because of their applicability in improving the in vivo delivery of various chemotherapeutic agents, biological macromolecules and diagnostics. Sphingosome may be defined as “concentric, bilayered vesicle in which an aqueous volume is entirely enclosed by a membranous lipid bilayer mainly composed of natural or synthetic sphingolipid. Sphingolipids are developed as bio effector molecules, which regulate cell growth, proliferation and anti-cancer therapeutics.
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Liposome stability problems are of course much more severe so it is very important task to improve the liposomal stability. Liposomal phospholipid can undergo chemical degradation such as oxidation and hydrolysis either as a result of these changes or otherwise liposome maintained in aqueous suspension may aggregate, fuse, or leak their content. Hydrolysis of ester linkage will slow at pH value close to neutral. The hydrolysis may be avoided altogether by use of lipid which contains ether amide linkage instead of ester linkage (such are found in sphingolipid) or phospholipid derivatives with the 2- ester linkage replaced by carbomoyloxy function. Thus sphingolipid are nowadays used for the preparation of stable liposomes known as sphingosomes
Sphingosomes are administered in many ways these include parenteral route of administration such as intravenous, intramuscular, subcutaneous, and intra-arterial. Generally it will be administered intravenous or some cases by inhalation. Often it will be administered into a large central vein, such as the superior vena cava and inferior vena cava to allow highly concentrated solution to be administered into large volume and flow vessels. Sphingosomes may be administered orally or transdermally.
According to IMS Health Consulting, an international research company, in 2012 the size of the global pharmaceutical market reached $940 billion. In monetary terms it grew by 6%. In the future the sector is expected to grow at no less than 3% to 4% a year and if this happens the global pharmaceutical market is expected to reach $1.1 trillion by 2015 and will reach $1.2 trillion in 2016 and up to $1.5 trillion by 2020. The global demographic, epidemiological and economic changes are transforming the pharmaceutical market. The world population is growing rapidly and is projected to raise from 7 billion in 2011 to 7.7 billion in 2020 and 9.6 billion in 2050, hence an increase in the demand for pharmaceuticals.
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This page was last updated on 10th Sep, 2015
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