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Biosensors may be used in conjunction with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). ELISA is used to detect and amplify an antigen-antibody reaction; the amount of enzyme-linked antigen bound to the immobilised antibody being determined by the relative concentration of the free and conjugated antigen and quantified by the rate of enzymic reaction. Enzymes with high turnover numbers are used in order to achieve rapid response. The sensitivity of such assays may be further enhanced by utilising enzyme-catalysed reactions which give intrinsically greater response; for instance, those giving rise to highly coloured, fluorescent or bioluminescent products. Assay kits using this technique are now available for a vast range of analyses.
Recently ELISA techniques have been combined with biosensors, to form immunosensors, in order to increase their range, However more advanced immunosensors are being developed, which rely on the direct detection of antigen bound to the antibody-coated surface of the biosensor. Piezoelectric and FET-based biosensors are particularly suited to such applications.
Immunosensors are affinity ligand-based biosensor solid-state devices in which the immunochemical reaction is coupled to a transducer. The fundamental basis of all immunosensors is the specificity of the molecular recognition of antigens by antibodies to form a stable complex. This is similar to the immunoassay methodology. Immunosensors can be categorized based on the detection principle applied. The main developments are electrochemical, optical, and microgravimetric immunosensors. In contrast to immunoassay, modern transducer technology enables the label-free detection and quantification of the immune complex.
Immunosensors act on the principle that the immune response of certain biological species (usually bacteria) to contaminants will produce antibodies, which in turn can be measured. To reduce the cost and time required for the accurate analysis of field samples of water and soil contaminated with explosive compounds, such as trinitrotoluene (TNT) and Royal Demolition Explosive (RDX), two immunosensors were developed. They are the fiber-optic biosensor and the continuous flow immunosensor for on-site screening and monitoring of contaminants. Both sensors determine the level of contamination by measuring the level of fluorescent activity caused by the introduction of a biological sample to the system. The fiber-optic biosensor works when contaminant molecules compete with fluorescent antibodies on the sensor. A decrease in fluorescent activity caused by contaminants binding onto antibody sites corresponds to the level of contamination. The continuous flow immunosensor works when the contaminant molecules displace fluorescent antibodies that are placed on a solid support. When displaced antibodies are detected, they correspond proportionally to the level of contamination.
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Societies related to Immunosensors: •International Society of Electrochemistry
Companies related to Immunosensors: •Universal Biosensors •DropSens •SciTOX Limited
Conferences related to Immunosensors: •Biosensors - IEEE Conference •Biosensors 2014 elsevier conference
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This page was last updated on May 20, 2022